Comparative Study on The Structure, Physical Properties and Hardness Indentation of a Bulk Fill & An Incremental Composite Resin Restorative Materials


  • Amira Elsherbeny Faculty of science, Mansoura University
  • Rizk Mostafa shalaby Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
  • Sayed Mohamed Ghorab Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.



Bulk-Fill Composite Resin, Degree of Conversion, Depth of Cure, Vickers Microhardness, Surface Roughness


Totally 80 disk-shaped specimens of Filtek™ Bulk-Fill, 3M ESPE, and Filtek™ Z250 XT, 3M ESPE, were prepared by using split-Teflon mold (4mm×10mm). Specimen characterization XRD, Surface roughness, degree of conversion, Surface microhardness, and depth of cure of the specimens were evaluated after the specimens were stored in distilled water in darkness at 37°C for 24 h. Statistical analysis was done using t-test with a significance level at p<0.05. FiltekTM Z350 XT showed the highest mean value of Vickers microhardness either on top surface 94.94% or bottom surface 69.92% and recorded 76.51% while FiltekTM Bulk-Fill was 66.85% for depth of cure. Filtek bulk-fill recorded a lower mean value of 0.73 for Surface roughness than FiltekTM Z350 XT and the highest degree of conversion of 84.34%. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the mean values for all tested results. Increasing the filler content proved to have ability to enhance some properties, specially the surface roughness. Incorporation of some structurally rigid monomers like Bis-DMA, UDMA, TEGDMA within the resin matrix have a great influence on the measured properties, including degree of conversion reached to 84.34%, depth of cure to a level of 76.51% and Vickers microhardness to 94.94%.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Amira Elsherbeny, Faculty of science, Mansoura University

Physics Department, Faculty of Science.

Rizk Mostafa shalaby, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Physics Department Faculty of Science

Sayed Mohamed Ghorab, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Dental Biomaterials Department.


M.A. Elhamid, R. Mosallam, Effect of bleaching versus repolishing on color and surface topography of stained resin composite, Aust Dent. J. 55(4) (2010) 390-398.

N.D. Ruse, What is a compomer?, J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 65(9) (1999) 500-504.

A.R. Curtis, A.C. Shortall, P.M. Marquis, W.M. Palin, Water uptake and strength characteristics of a nano filled resin-based composite, J. Dent. 36(3) 2008 186-193.

A. Versluis, W.H. Douglas, M. Cross, R.L. Sakaguchi, Does an incremental filling technique reduce polymerization shrinkage stresses?, J. Dent. Res. 75(3) (1996) 871-878.

A. Furness, M.Y. Tadros, S.W. Looney, F.A. Rueggeberg, Effect of bulk/incremental fill on internal gap formation of bulk-fill composites, J. Dent. 42(4) (2014) 439-449.

S. Flury, S. Hayoz, A. Peutzfeldt, J. Husler, A. Lussi, Depth of cure of resin composites: is the ISO 4049 method suitable for bulk fill materials?, Dent. Mater. 28(5) (2012) 521-528.

N. Ilie, R. Hickel, Investigations on the mechanical behavior of dental composites, Clin. Ora. lInvestig. 13(4) (2009) 427-438.

R. Walter, Critical appraisal: bulk-fill flowable composite resins, J. Esthet. Restor. Dent. 25(1) (2013) 72-76.

J.A.C. Discacciati, R.L. Orefice, Structural analysis on photopolymerized dental resins containing nanocomponents, J. Mater. Sci. 42 (2007) 3883-3893.

J. Janus, G. Fauxpoint, Y. Arntz, H. Pelletier, O. Etienne, Surface roughness and morphology of three nanocomposites after two different polishing treatments by a multi-technique approach, Dent. Mater. 26(5) (2010) 416-425.

M. Ono, T. Nikaido, M. Ikeda, S. Imai, N. Hanada, J. Tagami, K. Matin, Surface properties of resin composite materials relative to biofilm formation, Dent. Mater. J. 26(5) 2007 613-622.

C.M. Bollen, P. Lambrechts, M. Quirynen, Comparison of surface roughness of oral hard materials to the threshold surface roughness for bacterial plaque retention: a review of the literature, Dent. Mater. 13(4) (1997) 258-269.

Y. Hosoya, T. Shiraishi, T. Odatsu, J. Nagafuji, M. Kotaku, M. Miyazaki, et al. , Effects of polishing on surface roughness, gloss, and color of resin composites, J. Oral. Sci. 53 (2011) 283-291.

A.U. Yap, N.Y. Wong, K.S. Siow, Composite cure and shrinkage associated with a high-intensity curing light, Oper. Dent. 28 (2003) 357-364.

H. Oysad, I.E. Ruyter, Sjovik, I.J. Kleven, Release of formaldehyde from dental composites, J. Dent. Res. 67 (1988) 1289-1294.

A.U. Yap, Ms. Soh, T.T. Han, K.S. Siow, Influence of curing lights and modes on cross-link density of dental composites, Oper. Dent. 29 (2004) 410-415.

A.C.B. Alonso, , E.J.C. de Souza-junior, D. Dressano, G.A.S. Araujo, J.M.C. Badriguez, V.D. Hipolito, Effect of photoinitiator concentration on a marginal and internal adaptation of experimental composite blends photocured by modulated methods, Eur. J. Dent. (2013) 1-8.

E. Asmussen, A. Peutzfeldt, Influence of pulse-delay curing on softening of polymer structures, J. Dent. Res. 80 (2001) 1570-1573.

S. Dickens, J. Stansbury, K. Choi, C. Floyd, Photopolymerization kinetics of methacrylate dental resins, Macromolecules. 36 (2003) 6043-6053.

I. Sideridou, V. Tserki, G. Papanastasiou, Effect of chemical structure on the degree of conversion in light-cured dimethacrylate based dental resins, Biomaterials 23 (2002) 1819-1829.

R.W. Mills, A. Uhl, G.B. Backwell, K.D. Jandt, High power light-emitting diode (LED) arrays versus halogen light polymerization of oral biomaterials: Barcol hardness, compressive strength, and radiometric properties, Biomaterials 23 (2002) 2955-2963.

S.C. Sgarbi, S.K. Pereira, J.M.H. Martins, M.A.C. Oliveira, R.F. Mazur, Degree of conversion of resin composites light activated by halogen light and LED analyzed by ultraviolet spectrometry, Rev. Clín. Pesq. Odontol. 6 (2010) 223-230.

Y.A. Abed, H.A. Sabry, N.A. Alrobeigy, Degree of conversion and surface hardness of bulk-fill composite versus incremental-fill composite. Tanta Dent. J. 12 (2015) 71-80.

N. Ilie, R. Hickel, Investigations on a methacrylate-based flowable composite based on the SDRTM technology, Dent. Mater. 27 (2011) 348-355.

A.U. Yap, C. Seneviratne, Influence of light energy density on effec¬tiveness of composite cure, Oper. Dent. 26 (2001) 460-466.

K. Okada, S. Tosaki, K. Hirota, W.R. Hume, Surface hardness change of restorative filling materials stored in saliva, Dent. Mater. 17 (2001) 34-39.

J.G. Leprince, W.M. Palin, J. Vanacker, J. Sabbsgh, J. Devaux, G. Leloup, Physico-mechanical characteristics of commercially available bulk-fill composites, J. Dent. 42 (2014) 993-1000.

L.A. Knobloch, R.E. Kerby, N. Clelland, J. Lee, Hardness and degree of conversion of posterior packable composites, Oper. Dent. 9 (2004) 642-649.

J.G. Leprince, W.M. Palin, T. Mullier, J. Devaux, J. Vreven, G. Leloup, Investigating filler morphology and mechanical properties of new low-shrinkage resin composite types, J. Oral. Rehabilit. 37 (2010) 364-376.

K.H. Chung, E.H. Greener, Correlation between degree of conversion, filler concentration and mechanical properties of posterior composite resins, J. Oral. Rehabil. 17 (1990) 487-494.

T.M. Ruba, W.J. Dunn, D.F. Murchison, The surface hardness of various packable composites, Oper. Dent. 27 (2002) 243-247.

S. Hahnel, A.H. Dowling, S. El-Safty, G.J.P. Fleming, The influence of monomeric resin and filler characteristics on the performance of experimental resin-based composites (RBCs) derived from a commercial formulation, Dent. Mater. 28 (2012) 416-423.

E. Mobarak, I. Elsayed, M. Ibrahim, W. El-Badrawy, Effect of LED light-curing on the relative hardness of tooth-colored restorative materials, Oper. Dent. 34 (2009) 65-71.

A.C. Shortall, W.M. Palin, P. Burtscher, Refractive index mismatch and monomer reactivity influence on composite curing depth, J. Dent. Res. 87 (2008) 84-88.



How to Cite

Elsherbeny, A., shalaby, R. M. ., & Ghorab, S. M. . (2020). Comparative Study on The Structure, Physical Properties and Hardness Indentation of a Bulk Fill & An Incremental Composite Resin Restorative Materials. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS, 17, 204-214.




Most read articles by the same author(s)