JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a> All articles published in <em>Journal of Advances in Linguistics</em> are licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Editorial Office) (Gurpreet Kaur) Sat, 27 Jan 2024 05:08:31 +0000 OJS 60 Sayed`s Theory of Dark Energy and Dark Matter Forces Nature <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Allah (God) is the Creator of the wonderful accelerated expansion of universe. The</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">nature</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">of</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Dark energy (DE) and matter (DM) is enigmatic mystery of the modern astrophysics. This article is a theory establishes the nature and laws of DE and DM forces. They are among the forces controlling the universe harmony and homogeneity. The derived equations were based on the published Sayed quantum gravity force formula. The </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Sayed`s Dark energy force (SDEF)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> formulas indicate that they are function in quantum gravity force (F</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">QG</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">), energy density(ρ), cosmological (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ʌ)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">, Hubble (H), and Planck (h) constants</span><strong>.</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The formulas were verified and validated. For Planck and cosmos scales, the Dark energy force, energy density, and </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ʌ</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> were calculated and found to be 2.538x10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">84</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> N, 10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-26</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Kg/m</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3, </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">and</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-52 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">m</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-2 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">respectively. These values are in high concordance with the declared values. The results obtained show that the DE force represents more than ¾ of the universe forces as the observations. The disputed Hubble constant was also calculated and found to be in the range; ~2.2 x10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-18</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> s</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-1</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">. It can also be stated and emphasized that the light speed violation (E</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">≠</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">mc</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">) is a must to solve the DE nature and many other universe mysteries.</span></p> Sayed A. El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2024 Sayed A. El-Mongy Fri, 12 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Primordial Black Holes And How Strings Get Created Into Matter In The Early Universe <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The C-Neutralino is the major particle that drives the beginning of our universe. It decays into other particles including protons and electrons. Primordial Black Holes are also important in the development of our universe. They connect astrophysical constraints on sources of cosmic rays. Primordial Black Holes play a role in element abundance and the spectrum of the CMB. They are particle and matter creators. Primordial Black Holes can be a source of any species of particles in our space-time. In the end, they can shed new light on problems in Cosmology. Primordial Black Holes are the solution to inhomogeneous primordial structures in the early universe. C-Neutralinos are the particle that contributes to creation and also contribute to dark matter in our universe. It is the major source of dark matter in our universe. In the early universe, the cosmological principle did not exist. The inhomogeneous universe we see today evolved after about 1 billion years after the creation of our universe. </span></p> David McGraw Jr. Copyright (c) 2024 David McGraw Jr. Sat, 23 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Design study of a disruptive self-powered power plant prototype <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research work discusses a preliminary disruptive prototype design of a self-powered thermal power plant doing work by strictly isothermal closed processes using forced convection heat transfer both for adding and extracting heat. It includes useful work by expansion and vacuum-based contraction due to adding heat to and extracting heat from a working fluid. A cycle analysis considering useful work due to vacuum-based contraction is the core of the problem-solving methodology. The findings will be applied to the prototyping implementation task, which includes the cascade and series of cascade coupling of several regenerative power units. The empirical results of the case studies provide the data needed to carry out a prototyping task considering the results of real cases subjected to realistic irreversibilities and heat recovery factors that make the self-feeding power plant an interesting design option. This extraordinary result confirms the technical viability of real machines that exhibit the ability to provide more energy than they use, that is, second-class perpetual motion machines</span></p> Ramon Ferreiro Garcia Copyright (c) 2024 Ramon Ferreiro Garcia Sat, 16 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 New Physics – The Negation of Einstein’s Theories of Relativity <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">From ontological considerations alone, a new revolutionary quantum dynamical-materialist dialectical (Quantum Dialectics or QD) perspective of space-time-matter-motion achieves a new quantitative mass-energy-velocity relation for any ponderable fundamental particles. This new relation, based on the quantum uncertainty principle, gives the mass m of any free fundamental particle at its origin, in terms of the inverse cube of its velocity v. This quantitative relation is different and is a negation of the one derived from mechanical-metaphysical (Classical Mechanics or CM) approach since Isaac Newton and its relativistic post-quantum formulation of Albert Einstein. This new mass-energy-velocity relation is in conformity with known knowledge and is appropriately substantiated by the recent reports that “high-energy photons of gamma radiation from a distant galaxy arrived at Earth four minutes after lower-energy photons, although they were apparently emitted at the same time”; and another saying that “the time delays of gamma-ray photons are inversely proportional to their energy”. These findings would contradict Einstein's theory of relativity, which says that all photons (particles of light) must move at the same speed c. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">QD considers matter-antimatter particle pairs in their elementary virtual forms and kinetic motion as an eternal quantum dynamical process of existence and non-existence (Being-Nothing) arising from abstract space and abstract time in a contradiction to each other. The virtual particles can transition to real particles through quantum tunnelling or when equivalent energy becomes available. Any existence in this view is a contradiction; vulnerable to change, motion, evolution, development etc. The aggregation of the elementary particles and their motions mediated by chance and necessity, give rise to the phenomenology of this infinite, eternal and ever-changing universe. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The CM approach on the contrary is based on epistemology and considers that matter (ordinary + light) and motion have an esoteric origin from the mystery of the single act of creation by God; of a finite universe in the finite past; where the premise of conservation laws and “ex nihilo nihil fit” prevail. In its relativistic version, this approach makes a fundamental difference between ponderable matter and light and in fact question the existence of particulate matter. Two axiomatic assumptions, one by Newton of one-sided universal gravitational attraction and the other by Einstein that the velocity of light c is an absolute and universal constant has brought in unphysical objects and phenomena into scientific discourse leading to century-long confusion and scholastic debates among the physicists; with no end in sight! </span></p> Abdul Malek Copyright (c) 2024 Abdul Malek Thu, 07 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Efficient disruptive power plant-based heat engines doing work by means of strictly isothermal closed processes <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research discusses a methodology to integrate strictly isothermal closed processes within thermal cycles characterized by working through contraction processes by extracting heat at free cost. An analysis of a preliminary design study of an engine and cycle doing useful work by expansion and contraction is carried out, whereby the energy balance equations are adjusted when considering contraction work as the core of the problem-solving strategy. The results of the preliminary design study will be applied to the implementation of the disruptive power unit prototype operating with real gasses as working fluids, which allows a precise and clear understanding of the issue of generating useful work through the expansion, contraction, and regeneration of heat by applying advanced heat recovery techniques to convert heat into useful work, thus achieving efficient power units that exhibit the ability to exceed 100% of added thermal energy due to the contribution of the contraction-based work performed at free cost..</span></p> R. Ferreiro Copyright (c) 2024 R. Ferreiro Sat, 24 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of the Earth’s Rotation and Gravity on the Speed of Light <p>Based on the results of the M ichelson ̆Morley experiment [1] and the direct measurement of the speed of light in two directions, we can conclude that the movement of the Earth in relation to the Sun and the movement of the solar system in relation to the center of the galaxy do not affect the measurement of the speed of light in the vicinity of the Earth. But on the other hand, based on results of the M ichelson ̆Morley experiment and the direct measurement of the speed of light in two directions we cannot know with certainty whether the Earth’s rotation around its axis affects the measurement of the speed of light in one direction. Thus, instead of the motion by which the Earth’s surface moves in relation to the Sun, we will observe the angular motion by which the Earth rotates on its axis relative to distant stars. Instead of measuring the speed of light in two directions, we will measure the speed of light in one</p> Miloš Čojanović Copyright (c) 2024 Miloš Čojanović Sat, 27 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Laser heating of a finite silver sulfide slab (Ag2S). An elegant analytical solution using Laplace integral transform method. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The problem of heating a finite silver sulfide slab with cw laser is studied using Laplace integral transform technique. For a certain laser power irradiance an expression for the temperature profile within the slab is obtained. The temperature variations with time for the front and rear surfaces are also obtained. The critical time required to initiate melting can thus be computed. Computations for an illustrative example are given. The obtained results reveal.</span></p> M.K.El Adawi, S.A. Shalaby, S.S. Mostafa, S.A. Antar Copyright (c) 2024 M.K.El Adawi, S.A. Shalaby, S.S. Mostafa, S.A. Antar Sat, 27 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000