JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap en-US <p>The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).</p> editor@rajpub.com (Editorial Office) jap@rajpub.com (Gurpreet Kaur) Mon, 13 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Effects of Suction/Injection and Chemical Reaction on The Flow of Mass Transfer of A Micro Polar Fluid Past A Continuously Moving Plate in the Presence of Magnetic Field. https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8545 <p>An analysis is carried out to study the effects of chemical reaction and suction /injection on the flow of a micro polar fluid past a moving plate in the presence of magnetic field and mass transfer. The boundary layer equations are transformed to non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical results are presented for the distribution velocity, micro rotation profiles within the boundary layer. The effects of varying magnetic parameter, the non-dimensional chemical reaction parameter , Schmidt number, porosity parameter, micro rotation parameter, and coupling constant parameter are revealed.</p> Samia Sayed Shaban Copyright (c) 2020 samia sayed shaban http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8545 Sat, 04 Jan 2020 10:52:46 +0000 Site Specific Calibration Curve And Its Implication in The Treatment Planning of Head And Neck Cancer. https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8538 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: In this study, we created&nbsp; site specific Hounsfield Unit (HU) and Relative electron density(RED) calibration curves for computed tomography(CT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for head and neck radiotherapy dose calculation and compared them with standard calibration curves.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>:</p> <p>The calibration curves between HU and RED were generated using RANDO phantom for CT and CBCT and fed in the treatment planning system for dose calculation for head and neck patients.The treatment plans for 10 head and neck cancer patients were calculated using the standard calibration curves generated with CATPHAN and head and neck calibration curves generated with RANDO phantom for both CT and CBCT. Dose accuracy of head and neck calibration curves(H/N CC) were compared to the standard calibration curves (SCC) using dose volume metrics and 3D gamma analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results show that slightly better dosimetric agreement from the SCC can be obtained when using this H/N CC.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: A site specific calibration curves have been proposed and tested for the head-and-neck patients and the results explain the dosimetric benefits.</p> Roopam Srivastava, Shiva Gaur, Pramod Sharma, Manoj Sharma, Jayanand Manjhi, Maria Das, Dr Deepika Chauhan, Dr Neha Sehgal Copyright (c) 2020 Roopam Srivastava, Shiva Gaur, pramod sharma, Manoj Sharma, Jayanand Manjhi, Maria Das, Dr Deepika Chauhan, Dr Neha Sehgal http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8538 Sat, 11 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Black Holes are Rejuvenating Systems of the Universe https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8620 <p>Recent research on superfluid quantum vacuum as the physical origin of universal space has opened new perspectives in astronomy and cosmology. Every stellar object is in the active relation with space and its density diminishes according to the mass-energy equivalence principle. As per Newton’s Shell Theorem, vacuum density is minimum at the surface of the stellar objects and in their centre. The density of space on the surface of the Black holes and in their centre is so low that atoms become unstable. Therefore, they disintegrate back into the elementary particles and cosmic rays. By transforming old matter into these fresh energies, black holes are rejuvenating the universe and keeping its entropy constant.</p> Amrit Srecko Sorli Copyright (c) 2020 Amrit Srecko Sorli http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8620 Tue, 21 Jan 2020 10:04:59 +0000 Volumetric Analysis of 3-D Resistivity Distribution of Leachate Plume in Third Cemetery, Benin, South-South, Nigeria https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8486 <p>This paper aims to carry out the volumetric analysis of 3-D resistivity distribution of leachate plume in Third Cemetery, Benin City, South-South, Nigeria. If not appropriately located or not sufficiently protected, cemeteries pose a significant health problem for the people (Fisher and Croupkamp,1993). Health concern about the possible impact of the cemeteries in Nigeria on the water supply has prompted this research. The research engaged 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional imaging (tomography) to investigate the presence and migration of leachate plumes in the cemetery and computation of time-lapse to detect the time rate of migration in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The geoelectric models obtained for the surveys displayed leachate plumes starting from the laterite (the burial environment) down to the sandy formation (the regional water supply source). The leachate plumes presence in the sand bed is modeled and described as shown in the 2-D and 3-D displays. This study showed that parts of the cemetery had been contaminated. This contamination was also observed to have infiltrated into the aquifer in the cemetery. 3-D block model, using Voxler 4.0 software was employed to carry out the volumetric analysis of the 3-D resistivity distribution of leachate plume in the Third Cemetery.</p> Osabuohien Idehen Copyright (c) 2020 Osabuohien Idehen http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8486 Sat, 25 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Integration of Life and Consciousness into Cosmology https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8623 <p>The Big Bang model is based on vague interpretations of experimental data. Direct interpretation of the data opens a new vision of the universe in a permanent dynamic equilibrium without beginning and without end. In the universe as the main system, the evolution of life on planet Earth is a consistent part of the universal process that operates in the entire universe. The origin of life as a consistent part of universal dynamics is in higher dimensions of the multidimensional dynamic quantum vacuum.</p> Amrit Srecko Sorli, Štefan Čelan Copyright (c) 2020 Amrit Srecko Sorli, Štefan Čelan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8623 Thu, 30 Jan 2020 10:28:11 +0000 Influence of Couple Stresses and Thermophoresis on Free Convective Heat and Mass Transfer of Viscoelastic Fluid. https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8637 <p>A theoretical study has been developed to investigate the influence of thermophoresis and couple stresses on the steady flow of non-Newtonian fluid with free convective heat and mass transfer over a channel bounded by two permeable plates. The considered non-Newtonian fluid follows a viscoelastic model. The problem is modulated mathematically by a system of non-linear differential equations pertaining to describe the continuity, momentum, energy, and concentration. These equations involve the effects of viscous dissipation and chemical reaction. The numerical solutions of the dimensionless equations are found as a function of the physical parameters of this problem. The numerical formulas of the velocity (u), temperature Φ and concentration Θ&nbsp;as well as skin friction coefficient T*, Nusselt number(Nu) and Sherwood number(Sh) are computed. The physical parameter's effects of the problem on these formulas are described and illustrated graphically through some figures and tables. It is observed that any increase in the thermophoretic parameter T leads to reduce in velocity profiles as well as concentration layers. In contrast, the velocity increases with increasing the couple stresses inverse parameter.</p> N. T. M. Eldabe, Ahmed Refaie Ali, Gamil Ali Shalaby Copyright (c) 2020 N. T. M. Eldabe, Ahmed Refaie Ali, Gamil Ali Shalaby http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8637 Fri, 07 Feb 2020 10:33:01 +0000 Absolute Velocity and Total Stellar Aberration(II) https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8600 <p>In this paper, we will show that in addition to measuring annual and diurnal stellar aberration it is also possible 7 directly to measure the angle of secular aberration caused by the motion of the solar system relative to other 8 stars. In the manuscript [1] we dealt with this problem and gave a short description of a special telescope. Using 9 such a telescope we would be able to measure the exact position of the cosmic objects and thus eliminate errors 10 that occur due to the stellar aberration. Assuming that the tube of the telescope is filled with some optical 11 medium [2], we will show that this does not significantly affect the measurement of the stellar aberration angle, 12 but also that these differences are still large enough to enable us to determine the velocity at which the solar 13 system moves relative to the other stars.</p> Milos Cojanovic Copyright (c) 2020 Milos Cojanovic http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8600 Fri, 07 Feb 2020 10:39:55 +0000 Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Rapidly Solidified Al-Si Systems by Chill Block Melt-Spinning Technique. https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8607 <p>AlـSi alloys with compositions (0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.9 and 1.3 wt.% Si) were manufactured by chill block melt spinning method. The resulting ribbons samples have been characterized by xـray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Detailed analysis of (XRD) shows that presence of f.c.c Al solid solution and Si particles embedded within the aluminum grains. Microstructural examination resulted that microstructure of the melt spun ribbons are more fine and uniformly distributed. Rapid solidification technology led to increase the solubility of Si in αـAl as confirmed by XRD. Micro hardness measurements were also carried out by Vickers microـhardness tester at applied load 25gm forced and different dwell time. It is concluded that the Vickers hardness values are sensitive to applied load and indentation time. It is also found that the highest values of Hv is sensitive to presence of Si as columnar shape with fine grained of Al by high cooling rate.</p> Amal Elsherif, Mustafa Kamal, Rizk Mostafa Shalaby Copyright (c) 2020 Amal Elsherif, Mustafa Kamal, Rizk Mostafa Shalaby http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8607 Fri, 14 Feb 2020 11:01:47 +0000 The Motion Beyond Sense Towards Cognitive Evolution and Unified Laws of Motion https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8647 <p>This paper first explores the relationship between cognition and motion. Our typical cognitive mode, based on sensory forms, is integrated and, therefore, non-motion in nature. This highlights stability and relativity for practical cognitive needs, but at the same time prevents us from developing cognition of the complete form of motion. The result is a fundamental cognitive barrier for us to understand motion. By discovering the underlying cognitive principles, however, we can revise the cognitive process and redevelop the cognitive mode to meet the purpose of direct cognition of motion. Based on this newly developed cognitive mode, we will learn motion features directly and understand motion laws and principles, to explain natural phenomena and establish wide-range connections between them. These include the underlying principles of motion, gravity, the creation of matter and material forms, universal motion, and spacetime.</p> Aaron Peng Fu Copyright (c) 2020 Aaron Peng Fu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8647 Fri, 21 Feb 2020 10:23:08 +0000 A Introduction to the Classical Spiral Electrodynamics: The” Spiral-Spin” https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8494 <p>This paper demonstrates the existence of analytical solutions of the Lorentz equation for charged particles in “uniform pilot time-varying magnetic fields". These analytical solutions represent a temporal generalization of the Larmor's orbits and are expressed through a Schwarz-Christoffel spiral mapping or in spiral coordinates.</p> <p>The concepts of "spiral-spin” moment and "polar-spiral" angular momentum are then presented, the existence of a subclass of solutions for which these two angular moments are conserved is demonstrated.</p> <p>It is also shown that under the action of the "pilot fields," there exist particular trajectories for which the charged particles have a "spiral-spin" momentum constant proportional to +1/2 (solution named "spiral-spin-up ") and -1/2 (solution named "spiral-spin-down "), respectively.</p> <p>The results are in full agreement with the ideas of L.DeBroglie and A. Einstein on the possible existence of pilot fields able to describe the physical reality deterministically.</p> <p>Finally, the solution of the Lorentz equation is discussed with the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) method for a superposition of two uniform magnetic fields with the same direction, the first constant and the second time-varying.</p> Italo Mario Fabbri Copyright (c) 2020 Italo Mario Fabbri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8494 Fri, 21 Feb 2020 10:24:48 +0000 Couple Stresses and Thermophoresis Influences on Free Convective Heat and Mass Transfer of Viscoelastic Fluid with Hall and Ion-Slip Effects. https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8657 <p>&nbsp;An analysis is presented to investigate the Hall and Ion-slip effects on non-Newtonian couple stress fluid flow between vertical channel in the presence of thermophoresis phenomena. The considered fluid obeys to the viscoelastic second-grade model. The problem is modulated mathematically to describe continuity, momentum, temperature, and concentration equations. The influences of physical parameters of dimensionless equations of velocity components () and (), temperature () and concentration () have been shown in some of figuthe res, as well as skin friction (), Nusselt number() and Sherwood number() have been computed. It is found that the velocity &nbsp;decreases with increasing in Hall parameter and Ion slip parameters.</p> Gamil Shalaby Copyright (c) 2020 Gamil Shalaby http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8657 Fri, 21 Feb 2020 10:26:03 +0000 Relativity: An Alternative Interpretation In the Light of The Existence of An Extra Spatial Dimension – A Systematic Review https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8660 <p>This paper represents the latest revision of a portion of the research work, still in progress, carried out by the author during the last four years. The overall aim of the study fundamentally consists in showing how, while postulating the absoluteness of time, the validity of the relativistic equations may be formally preserved. Starting from the writing of the first Friedmann – Lemaître Equation (and therefore from General Relativity), a Simple-Harmonically Oscillating Universe (flat, upper-bounded, conventionally singular at Carmine Cataldo Copyright (c) 2020 Carmine Cataldo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8660 Fri, 28 Feb 2020 10:41:34 +0000 Einstein’s Vision of Time and Infinite Universe without Singularities: The End of Big Bang Cosmology https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8649 <p>Cosmology should be built on falsifiability, bijectivity, and experimental data. Speculations are not allowed. NASA has measured universal space has Euclidean shape, which means universal space is infinite in the volume. Einstein’s vision on time as the sequential order of events running in space has bijective correspondence with the physical reality and means that the universe does not run in some physical time; it runs only in space, which is time-invariant. In this timeless universe, there is no singularity of the beginning, there is no singularity inside of black holes. The energy of the universe is non-created, its transformation is eternal without the beginning and without the end.</p> Amrit Srecko Sorli Copyright (c) 2020 Amrit Srecko Sorli http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8649 Fri, 28 Feb 2020 10:30:11 +0000 System Theory, Proton Stability, Double-Slit Experiment, and Cyclotron Physics https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8668 <p>Every system is composed of constitutional elements that are stable. Unstable elements cannot build a system. The hydrogen atom, for example, is the system composed out of two stable elements: proton and electron. How proton could be a system made out of unstable elements as quarks and gluons is an unanswered question that particle physics need to face in order to strengthen its theoretical basis. System Theory offers an original interpretation of double-slit experiment and requires re-examination of cyclotron physics.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amrit Srecko Sorli Copyright (c) 2020 Amrit Srecko Sorli http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8668 Fri, 13 Mar 2020 04:49:58 +0000 A Tiny, Counterintuitive Change to the Mathematics of the Schrodinger Wave Packet and Quantum ElectroDynamics Could Vastly Simplify How We View Nature https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8696 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article proposes that an unexpected approach to the mathematics of a Schro ̋dinger wave packet and Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED), could vastly simplify how we perceive the world around us. It could get rid of most if not all quantum weirdness. Schro ̋dinger’s cat would be gone. Even things that we thought were unquestionably true about the quantum world would change. For example, the double slit experiment would no longer support wave particle duality. Experiments that appeared to say that entangled particles can communicate instantaneously over great distances, would no longer say that. Although the tiny mathematical change is counterintuitive, Occam’s razor dictates that we consider it because it simplifies how we view Nature in such a pervasive way. The change in question is to view a Schro ̋dinger wave packet as part of a larger Elementary Wave traveling in the opposite direction. It is known in quantum mechanics that the same wave can travel in two countervailing directions simultaneously. Equivalent changes would be made to QED and Quantum Field Theory. It is known in QM that there are zero energy waves: for example, the Schro ̋dinger wave carries amplitudes but not energy.</p> </div> </div> </div> Jeffrey Boyd Copyright (c) 2020 Jeffrey Boyd http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8696 Fri, 03 Apr 2020 06:58:38 +0000 Comparative Study on The Structure, Physical Properties and Hardness Indentation of a Bulk Fill & An Incremental Composite Resin Restorative Materials https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8695 <p>Totally 80 disk-shaped specimens of Filtek™ Bulk-Fill, 3M ESPE, and Filtek™ Z250 XT, 3M ESPE, were prepared by using split-Teflon mold (4mm×10mm). Specimen characterization XRD, Surface roughness, degree of conversion, Surface microhardness, and depth of cure of the specimens were evaluated after the specimens were stored in distilled water in darkness at 37°C for 24&nbsp;h. Statistical analysis was done using t-test with a significance level at p&lt;0.05. Filtek<sup>TM</sup> Z350 XT showed the highest mean value of Vickers microhardness either on top surface 94.94% or bottom surface 69.92% and recorded 76.51% while Filtek<sup>TM</sup> Bulk-Fill was 66.85% for depth of cure. Filtek bulk-fill recorded a lower mean value of 0.73 for Surface roughness than Filtek<sup>TM</sup> Z350 XT and the highest degree of conversion of 84.34%. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the mean values for all tested results. Increasing the filler content proved to have ability to enhance some properties, specially the surface roughness. Incorporation of some structurally rigid monomers like Bis-DMA, UDMA, TEGDMA within the resin matrix have a great influence on the measured properties, including degree of conversion reached to 84.34%, depth of cure to a level of 76.51% and Vickers microhardness to 94.94%.</p> Amira Elsherbeny, Rizk Mostafa shalaby, Sayed Mohamed Ghorab Copyright (c) 2020 Amira Elsherbeny, Rizk Mostafa shalaby, Sayed Mohamed Ghorab http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8695 Fri, 03 Apr 2020 06:58:53 +0000 By Simulation Physics of Light by Rendering Software as Standard Render as of N-Enlargement Bounces from Glass Heart Object Get Similar Shape as Calabi Yau Variety Assumption https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8689 <p>There are wave-particle properties of light. On photoreal visualization, we see only wave properties of light, photo from CAD scripts render, and where are particle properties? Similar as for example thermal analysis, but other, by simulating physics of light by standard rendering software of n- enlargement bounces could envoy particle properties, as from glass heart object get similar shape as Calabi Yau variety assumption.</p> Peter Golian Copyright (c) 2020 Peter Golian http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8689 Fri, 03 Apr 2020 06:59:06 +0000 Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Pomegranate Peel Extract and Chitosan-Silver Nanoparticles Using Electrochemical Method. https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8667 <p>The present work involves the development of chitosan-pomegranate peel extract and silver nanoparticles (Cs-PPE-AgNPs) using electrochemical process followed by UV irradiation reduction. Formation of silver nanoparticles characterize by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), SEM, Swelling and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtain nanoparticles average size was 34.6 nm. UV Spectroscopy show new peak at 405nm indicate the formation of AgNPs particles. Cs-PPE and Cs-PPE-AgNPs also demon started a relativity high antibacterial against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.</p> Afaf Sarhan, M. I. Abdel Hamid, Sabrien A. Omar, R. Hanie Copyright (c) 2020 Afaf Sarhan, M. I. Abdel Hamid, Sabrien A. Omar, R. Hanie http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/8667 Fri, 03 Apr 2020 06:59:25 +0000