JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap en-US <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a> All articles published in <em>Journal of Advances in Linguistics</em> are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> editor@rajpub.com (Editorial Office) jap@rajpub.com (Gurpreet Kaur) Sat, 22 Jan 2022 05:31:49 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.7 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Silica gel doped with cobalt oxide prepared by sol-gel technique; improving dielectric charge storage https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9324 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The structural, morphology and magnetic properties of Cobalt oxide embedded in silica gel with 10 mol. %, in monolith form, sintered at different temperature ranging from 60 up to 1300</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">º</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">C, respectively recorded as (SC(60-1300) were prepared by a modified sol gel technique. The sintering temperature effect on the crystallization, surface morphology and magnetic behaviors of the prepared samples will be study,</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Phase identification by using surface morphology and X-ray diffraction will be study by using Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Field emission scanning electron microscope imaging (FESEM). The nano-scale presence and the formation of the α-cristobalyte tetragonal phase of silica gel as well as the doped samples with cobalt oxide crystallinity enhancement were detected using the mentioned techniques. FTIR spectra were being study. The saturation magnetization (M</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">s</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">), remnant magnetization (M</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">r</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">) and coercive force (H</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">c</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">), was founded to be equl to 0.183,0.031 emu/g and 46.7O</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">e</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> respectively. The A. C. conductivity increased by increasing the temperature .Therefore, by increasing the sintering temperature of the silica gel network doped withCo</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">O</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">4</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">are applicant for several electronic and industrial devices with improved dielectric charge storage capacity and strength.</span></p> R.K. Abd El Hamid, I. K. Battisha, N.A.M Shahin Copyright (c) 2022 R.K. Abd El Hamid, I. K. Battisha, N.A.M Shahin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9324 Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation and Validation of Enrichment Percentage of U3O8 Samples using Innovative Mathematical Formula and Python Code https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9299 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Depending on the enrichment levels, enriched uranium can be used for many purposes, such as the fabrication of fresh fuels for power and research reactors. Furthermore, under the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation (NPT), the states, specifically non-nuclear-weapon states of comprehensive safeguards agreements, should be inspected and verified to prove "peaceful use" commitments. Consequently, verifying the enrichment process and the percentage is considered an essential element for investigation purposes. The primary motivation of this paper is to estimate and validate U</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">O</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">8</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> samples enrichment percentage using innovative formula. The enrichment calculations were conducted using certified safeguarded nuclear materials with varying low enriched uranium (LEU) ratios, both experimentally with a HpGe detector and computationally with Python 3.10 code. The results prove precise and acceptable values compared to the certified declared enrichment percentage (from depleted 0.32% - 4.5%) with differences in the range of 1⁓ 3.8%. The new formula used in this work applies to national, regional, and international safeguards inspection targets.</span></p> R.A. El-Tayebany, Hekmat Elbegawy, Sayed A. El-mongy Copyright (c) 2022 R.A. El-Tayebany, Hekmat Elbegawy, Sayed A. El-mongy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9299 Sun, 02 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Doppler effect and one-way speed of light https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9278 <p>The Doppler effect is one of the most important and most elementary phenomenon in nature. If we accept that fact, then there is no need to use any other theories to understand its essence. There is only one Doppler effect, regardless of whether the signal between the sender and the receiver travels directly or through a medium. Therefore, there is only one formula that is valid in all cases. The goal of this paper is to determine that formula. Using the obtained results, we will show that the one-way speed of light can be measured by physical experiment.</p> Miloš Čojanović Copyright (c) 2022 Miloš Čojanović https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9278 Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Theory for Galaxy Formation: Innovative Model for Evolution of Galaxies as a Function in the Initial Cloud 2π and 4π Geometry and Acceleration https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9280 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The</span><strong> Big Bang idea </strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">is referred in the</span><strong> glorious Quran. </strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">As a matter of fact, there is no single integrated model describing the formation of all type of the galaxies. This work proposes a new theory and equations describing the controlling conditions and parameters of stars and galaxies formation. The derived equation called, Sayed`s galaxy formation formula </span><strong>(SGFF)</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">, shows that the formation of the major disk (spiral) and elliptical galaxies is correlated to the 2π and 4π geometry of the initial cloud. Sayed`s temperature (Ts) , pressure (Ps) and radius (Rs) are among the effective parameters of galaxies formation. The mass of galaxy (Sayed`s galaxy mass formula- SGME) was also deduced based on acceleration and expansion and given as a new formula. The formulas were validated and verified by check of the units and comparison with the declared values. The minimum mass (0.0774M</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">ʘ</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">) for star formation was calculated and found to be fully matched with the reference range; 0.075 – 0.08 solar mass, for 4π geometry. The gas halo </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">mass</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> of the Milky Way was calculated with ~2 % discrepancy. Our previous article; Dark matter-energy to Hydrogen-helium ratio should be considered in galaxy formation mechanism and calculation.</span></p> Sayed El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2022 Sayed El-Mongy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9280 Sat, 03 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Unifying Theory for Quantum Physics, Part 2: https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9268 <p style="margin: 0in 0in 6.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The quantum world is allegedly strange. But is it? What if there’s a simple mathematical explanation, and a simple solution? The success of quantum mechanics (QM) arises from the accuracy of its probability predictions, which are obtained by squaring amplitudes (the Born rule). Suppose for a moment that nature uses the negative of QM’s equations. When squared they would yield the same probabilities, confirmed by the same experiments and technological triumphs. If that were true, if nature uses the negative of QM’s equations, then the quantum world would become transparent, easy to understand. No more Schrödinger’s-cat. No quantum-eraser. No backwards-in-time cause-and-effect. No paradoxes nor enigmas. But, what’s a negative quantum equation? It could mean that particles follow zero-energy waves backwards, instead of forwards. That’s still an eccentric idea, a residual strangeness. Overall, it’s a bargain. We could swap one odd idea for another, because wave-particle duality is odd. We are accustomed to wave-particle duality. But we’ll show that experiments support the other arrangement: quantum particles follow zero-energy waves backwards. How could that possibly be true? We present substantial experimental evidence, new mathematics, and six dozen colorful illustrations. This is the Theory of Elementary Waves (TEW).</span></p> Jeffrey Boyd Copyright (c) 2022 Jeffrey Boyd https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9268 Wed, 10 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A LESS-CONSTRAINED (2,0) SUPER-YANG-MILLS MODEL THE COUPLING TO NON-LINEAR σ-MODELS https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9134 <p>Considering a class of (2,0) super-Yang-Mills multiplets characterised by the appearance of a pair of independent gauge potentials, we present here their coupling to non-linear σ-models in (2,0)-superspace. Contrary to the case of the coupling to (2,0) matter superfields, the extra gauge potential present in the Yang-Mills sector does not decouple from the theory in the case one gauges isometry groups of σ-models.Considering a class of (2,0) super-Yang-Mills multiplets characterized by the appearance of a pair of independent gauge potentials, we present here their coupling to non-linear σ-models in (2,0)-superspace. Contrary to the case of the coupling to<br />(2,0) matter superfields, the extra gauge potential present in the Yang-Mills sector does not decouple from the theory in the case one gauges isometry groups of σ-models.</p> C.A.S. ALMEIDA ALMEIDA, J. Chauca, R.M. Doria Copyright (c) 2022 C.A.S. ALMEIDA ALMEIDA, J. Chauca, R.M. Doria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9134 Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Redshift As Slow-Light on Base of Frequency on Model of Galaxy GN-Z11 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9234 <p>The calculation of the redshift on base of wavelength leads to the conclusion that the regression speed of some body showing a shift &gt;1 can greatly exceed that of light. This research, taking as model the most far from us galaxy GN-z11, discovered in 2016, shows that results given on base of decreasing of frequency as consequence of slowed light-speed, could concretely solve the complex question of the redshift of bodies very distant from us. The results related to this model could be further substantially confirmed by performing an experiment briefly described here.</p> Luciano M.R. Rota Copyright (c) 2022 Luciano M.R. Rota https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9234 Wed, 06 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Unity of the Universe: New and Global Theory Correlating the Ratio of Hydrogen - Helium to Dark Energy – Matter: Sayed`s Golden Formula (SGF) https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9246 <p>Singularity and unity is the glorified<strong> Creator </strong>of the universe. This article went deeply through hydrogen and helium percentages in the universe to explain and correlate their existence with dark energy and matter. Our finding indicates that the hydrogen to helium (H/He) ratio in the universe should be and equal to <strong>π</strong>. Our previous work predicted that the dark energy to dark matter (DE/DM) ratio is also equal <strong>π</strong>. It was deduced that the ratio of hydrogen and helium to dark energy and matter {(H/He)/(DE/DM)} is correlated. This ratio, which is called <strong>S-ratio, </strong>was simply estimated and found to be <strong>unity</strong>. It was also observed that the iron of mass number 56 is also in correlation with hydrogen and helium content; the ratio is specifically equal<strong> √π.</strong> This work is uniquely correlated the estimated {(H/He)/(DE/DM)} ratio with the Golden ratio to produce a new global formula to be defined as Sayed Golden formula (<strong>SGF</strong>). The value of SGF is 1.71347. The results of H/He were compared with many of the other published works.</p> Sayed El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2022 Sayed El-Mongy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9246 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Prologue to (Re)2naissance https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9235 <p>Having observed that modern mathematical theories of matter have begun to experience difficulties, a visit to their origins is made. The so-called Hermes revealed theory of matter has been explored. A theory of matter made up of infinitely hard, extremely tiny classical particles moving at the speed of light is proposed, and preliminaries of such a theory are investigated. Elementary particles are proposed to be handled as ordered bundles in a random vacuum, oscillating either simultaneously, 180 degrees out of phase, or as a mixture. This is proposed to be done under the restriction that phase and basic incremental motion is supposed to be quantized. The coincidence between the teachings of Hermes and the holy books, especially the Quran, has been brought to surface. The necessity of further research, which is urgent under current conditions, performed with the help of supercomputers at hand has been proposed.</p> Ismail German, Ahmet Ozan Gezerman Copyright (c) 2022 Ismail German, Ahmet Ozan Gezerman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9235 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Photon Characteristics and Behavior under Refractive Index https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9220 <p>The effective mass, energy and momentum of photon in medium is described. The photon has both kinetic and potential energy and displays an effective mass when travelling through a medium. The photon is a type of elementary particle that serves as the quantum of the electromagnetic field and is explained through equations to have an elastic constant, volume, momentum, force, power and zero rest mass. The theory that photons a massless only applies to rest mass. A photon undergoes different dynamics such as strain and changes in effective mass under the influence of the refractive index that gives rise to a refractive force. This study synthesizes some properties of energy such as elastic constant, weight, and volume in order to explain the nature of photons and photon dynamics under refractive index. In this study, a helical spring model has been used to describe the behavior of a photon in the medium. The model connects together the exhibited properties such as energy, effective mass, spin, elastic constant and volume. Further explanation is given to the effect of gravitational force on wavelength and refractive index of air, and how gravitational force causes red and blue shifts in photon propagation. The quantization of energy has been extended to the quantization of space, time and matter. This study is consistent and consolidates the existing classical and quantum theories. There are further potential applications in optical communication, quantum cryptography, quantum optics, and medicine, especially in the use of two-photon excitation microscopy and photodynamic therapy.</p> Given Kalonga, Rodrick Symon Katete, Joseph Simfukwe, Adrian Habanyama Copyright (c) 2022 Given Kalonga, Rodrick Symon Katete, Joseph Simfukwe, Adrian Habanyama https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9220 Fri, 13 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Max Born Symmetry Topples the Many-Worlds Theory https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9114 <p>All “interpretations” of Quantum Mechanics (QM) are predicated on the assumption that quantum mathematics is correct. We disagree. The Born rule implies that nature may have a hidden symmetry: |+<em>ψ</em>|<sup>2</sup> = |–<em>ψ</em>|<sup>2</sup> = probability. If nature uses –<em>ψ</em> then physicists would not recognize that their math is 100% wrong. This hypothesis could explain the mystery that quantum math appears to be the most accurate and productive mathematics humans ever possessed, the source of our high-tech economy, yet scientists cannot agree on what the quantum world is like: does it exist, are there infinitely many worlds, etc. If we change our wave-function from +<em>ψ</em> to –<em>ψ</em>, that will mean that quantum particles follow zero-energy “Elementary Waves” backwards. This symmetry does not conform to Noether’s Theorem because it does not involve physical space, rather an error in the human imagination. Wave-function collapse no longer occurs when a quantum particle is observed. It occurs when a free particle is emitted: when the particle selects which in-coming Elementary Wave to follow backwards. This undermines the foundations of the many-worlds theory. A superposition of states collapses as a particle is emitted, becoming only one state, located in only one world, not many.</p> <p>Type (Method/Approach): No one previously recognized the Born rule could hide a “Born Symmetry”: |+<em>ψ</em>|<sup>2</sup> ≡ |–<em>ψ</em>|<sup>2</sup>. If so, it would be so immense, pervasive, insidious, and invisible that it could explain all quantum “weirdness” even though quantum math is the most accurate and productive science ever.</p> Jeffrey H. Boyd Copyright (c) 2022 Jeffrey H. Boyd https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9114 Fri, 13 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Quanton Based Model of Field Interactions, https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9217 <p>The search for a unification of the physical phenomena was the preoccupation of many physicists for long time. Starting from the seventeenth century with the unification of celestial mechanics and gravitation, then the unification of the electromagnetism in the nineteenth century. The early twentieth century brought about the unification of space and time and the unification of energy and mass while the advent of gauge theory enabled the unification of the weak interaction with the electromagnetism in the middle of the twentieth century. More recent theories are proposed as the answer to the unification question in physics include quantum gravity which unifies quantum mechanics and gravitation, and string theory. Unification effort should not only address the known fundamental forces but the space fabric interactions which till now remain unknown but their manifestations are described as the dark energy and dark matter. Here the concept of interacting space and time fields which constitute space time is discussed using classic method which has a certain advantage of bringing the physical meaning into visualization.</p> Ayman kassem Copyright (c) 2022 Ayman kassem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9217 Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Creator Of the Universe Adjusted the Dark Energy/Dark Matter Ratio and Baryons to Be Function In Π And Eπ: Predicted and Deciphered by Sayeed’s Theorem https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9223 <p>The fine tuning of the universe was adjusted by Allah – the Creator. This article deciphered the dark energy (DE), dark matter (DM) and baryonic matter (BM) pattern ambiguity as a one of the physics mysteries. In this article and for the first time, the ratio of the dark energy/dark matter and baryons are predicted by Sayed`s theorem to be function in π and eπ. The previous published measurements and estimations have been showing different values and variations. It is predicted that the ideal and optimum (DE/DM) ratio is equal to the constant π; called Sayed El-mongy (DE/DM) ratio; symbolized as (<strong>s<sup>AM</sup></strong>)<strong>. </strong>While, the ratio (DE/DM+BM) is to the constant e. The value of (DE/DM) multiplied by (DE/DM+BM) was found to be eπ. The typical predicted values of dark energy, dark matter and baryons are 71.314093%, 22.7% and 3.538% respectively. The remainder 2.450907% could be due to undiscovered and any other form of matter (OM) including neutrinos and antimatter. The comparison of the predicted values with the world range and published data was also carried out and given with the % discrepancy. It was observed that the closest values to the predicted <strong>(DE/DM) Sayed ratio (π)</strong> are with the difference of 0.35508198% for SWIN and 1.02083609% for WAMP respectively.</p> Sayed Ali El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2022 Sayed Ali El-Mongy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9223 Mon, 25 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Structure of Space and its Impact on Interplanetary Travel and Answers to Fundamental Cosmological Questions https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9215 <p>The article presents the far-reaching implications of the theory entitled "Theory of Space" (Sobolewski D. S., Theory of Space, 2016) (Sobolewski D. S., Theory of Space, 2017) (Sobolewski D. S., Theory of Space, 2022 - new unpublished edition) and of the publication "New Generations of Rocket Engines" (Sobolewska, Sobolewska, Sobolewski, Sobolewski, &amp; Sobolewski, 2021). Among others, it presents the shape of curved space in E<sup>4</sup> for selected planets of the solar system and the Sun, taking into account boundary hypersurfaces and gravitational interactions. The existence of space tunnels was analysed and the perspective of new technologies enabling interplanetary travel was outlined. Furthermore, due to the revealed structure of space, cosmological issues including the existence of other Universes and possible effects of their interactions are addressed. The constant Gdańsk was also introduced G<sub>Gdańsk</sub> which, together with the introduced equation, makes it possible to determine the maximum immersion depth of an astronomical object of mass M.</p> Natalia Julia Sobolewska, Joanna Paulina Sobolewska, Marek Juliusz Sobolewski, Michał Amadeusz Sobolewski, Dariusz Stanisław Sobolewski Copyright (c) 2022 Natalia Julia Sobolewska, Joanna Paulina Sobolewska, Marek Juliusz Sobolewski, Michał Amadeusz Sobolewski, Dariusz Stanisław Sobolewski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9215 Sun, 17 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Novel Arithmetic Equations for Mass Energy Equivalence, Newton’s Rings Radius, Wavelength and Speed of Light, Fine Structure Constant and Ideal Gas Law Correlated with eπ Based on Sayed’s Theorem https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9214 <p>Many proved scientific facts are mentioned in the generous Quran. This article introduces revisiting, revising and rewriting of well-established equations and laws of different applied fields of science and engineering. The eπ has been correlated with the mass energy equation of special relativity, fine structure constant, Newton`s rings radius, light wavelength, speed of light and ideal gas law. The correlated formulas were achieved based on the published Sayed`s equations and theorem. The fine structure constant was calculated and compared with a published value with 8.6435x10<sup>-5 </sup>discrepancy percentage. The novel deduced equations/formulas can be considered as confident mathematical expressions to be parallel used in the abovementioned and other scientific fields.</p> Sayed A. El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2022 Sayed A. El-Mongy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9214 Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biophysical Characterization of (DOX-NPtm): FTIR and DSC Studies https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9194 <p>Doxorubicin loaded into liposomes grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been demonstrated to have a longer circulation time and lower cardiotoxicity than doxorubicin (DOX). This study aims to investigate the biophysical characterization of a marketed formulation DOX-encapsulated liposome (DOX-NP<sup>TM</sup>). The interactions between doxorubicin and liposomal lipids can help in liposomal development. The liposome and DOX-NP<sup>TM</sup> were characterized in terms of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The rheological properties of liposomal samples were also measured. Physical interactions may be occurred between the drug functional groups and liposomal lipids, probably by weak hydrogen bond formation or weak bond formation due to dipole-dipole interaction. There was no shift of existing peaks or appearance of new peaks was detected between the characteristic peaks of the liposomal lipids were present in the DOX-encapsulated liposome sample. This suggests that there were physical interactions that took place only between the drug and lipids and no chemical interaction between them. DSC information shows that the phase transition temperature shifts to lower temperature degrees after loading of DOX into the liposomes. The DSC curve has a small broadening. This may infer a little cooperativity decrease between acyl chains of liposomal membranes after DOX inclusion. The encapsulation of DOX into liposomes decreases the plastic viscosity of liposomes (from 1.64 to 1.48 cP), which shows that the membrane fluidity was increased.</p> Amal Abdullah Al Mutairi, Mohsen Mahmoud Mady Copyright (c) 2022 Amal Abdullah Al Mutairi, Mohsen Mahmoud Mady https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9194 Thu, 03 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of the modification structure for Newton's metal on some its properties for industrial applications https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9161 <p>Newton's metal is important for industrial applications that is the reason for studying the effect of modified structure of it’s on mechanical and thermal properties. Microstructure, mechanical properties such as elastic modulus Vickers hardness, internal friction and melting temperature of Bi<sub>50</sub>Pb<sub>34</sub>Sn<sub>16, </sub>Bi<sub>50</sub>Pb<sub>28</sub>Sn<sub>22, </sub>Bi<sub>50</sub>Pb<sub>22</sub>Sn<sub>28 </sub>and Bi<sub>50</sub>Pb<sub>16</sub>Sn<sub>34 </sub>alloys have been studied and analyzed. </p> <p>X-ray analysis of these alloys show that, it contained different phases with formed a solid solution. Elastic modulus variable decrease, melting temperature varied, internal friction and Vickers hardness increased due to modified Newton's metal (Bi<sub>50</sub>Pb<sub>31.2</sub>Sn<sub>18.8</sub>) alloy.</p> Eman Kashita Copyright (c) 2022 Eman Kashita https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9161 Mon, 14 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The second revolution of relativity https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9179 <p>Energy, this vital entity that we need, and that everyone consumes and liberates, in different forms, has been since the dawn of time the greatest concern of the human being. Over the centuries, energy has transformed lifestyles in all societies of the world, contributing to the emergence of new cities and major cosmopolitan cities. Scientific research has contributed to much of this extraordinary advance of energy in the conquest of the world, thanks to the many works and discoveries of scientists from the golden age of Islamic civilization to the renaissance in Europe, to the great technological revolution that has emerged in the North and in the South. The continuous need for energy has always been the main driver, for various discoveries, whether related to energy matter or those related to energy reactions. Between pure matter and an active reaction, energy has become the focus of several hybrid studies, manipulating energy as a source on the one hand, and as a finished product on the other.</p> <p>While most of the work carried out on the electric current, during the first years of the 17th century [1], showed the precariousness of the materials as regards their conductivity, the arrival on the scientific scene of new chemical elements, discovered then around the 18th century, have strengthened the quality of the works and consequently the improvement of the electrical productivity in the world. Nuclear energy will suffer the same fate of development as that of electrical energy, passing through critical periods, especially those relating to the discovery of high-activity materials [2].<br />Nevertheless, the arrival at the beginning of the 18th of the famous formula of Albert Einstein on relativity, (E= mc<sup>2</sup>) <strong>[3]</strong>, put an end to the major concerns of scientists on energy, to know finally, the nature and value of the energy compensation of the material during its activity.</p> <p>We, in turn, consider that Albert Einstein’s formula is not entirely sufficient to decipher the true energetic reality of matter. Our work is a re-shaping of the relativistic formula, not only from the physical point of view but also from the mathematical point of view. As a result, our contribution to this restoration pleads for a new apprehension of the atom as an «original copy of the universe» which has an infinity of nanoscopic particles, which remain active within matter, Chemically active and physically metastable. This extrapolation of the relativistic formula will recognize to energy the other side of its independence from matter.</p> Amar Merouani Copyright (c) 2022 Amar Merouani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9179 Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Innovative Theoretical Correlation of eπ With Mass, Number of Atoms and Enrichment Percentage (%E) Using Sayed’s Enrichment Formula https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9180 <p>This article introduces an innovative theoretical correlation between <strong>eπ</strong> and enrichment percentage (%E) assay. Based on the published Sayed`s theorem and its applications, a simple equation was derived to calculate the %E. Different formulas for enrichment percentage calculation are also presented in this work. The theoretical calculations using the eπ formula show results with deviation from 0.96 to ~2.8%. A correlation between eπ, number of atoms (N), count rate (C), half life time (T<sub>1/2</sub>), efficiency (η) of the detector at specific energy, the branching ratio (Iγ), Avogadro`s number (A<sub>N</sub>), atomic weight (A<sub>W</sub>) and mass (M) was also found and elucidated. It can sharply state that this is first time to calculate the %E correlated with eπ by using what is called <strong>Sayed`s enrichment formula</strong>. The correlation of eπ and N A<sub>W</sub> A<sub>N</sub> M η Iγ T<sub>1/2</sub> is a unique and pioneer scientific approach in the nuclear fields.</p> Sayed El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2022 Sayed El-Mongy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9180 Thu, 27 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gravity and speed of light https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9168 <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #000000;">One of the postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity is that the speed of light is constant <br />in all inertial reference frames regardless of the motion of the observer or </span><span style="color: #000000;">source. This postulate also apply to the General Theory of Relativity.<br />There are many experiments whose results are consistent with the assumption that gravity does not affect the speed of light. But notwithstanding all this we may argue<br /> that it has not been formally proved. One way to prove its correctness is to replace it with the opposite axiom, axiom of variable speed of light. If there is at least one experiment<br /> whose result would possibly be in contradiction with this axiom, then it must be rejected and the axiom of a constant speed of light must be accepted.</span></pre> Miloš Čojanović Copyright (c) 2022 Miloš Čojanović https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9168 Sat, 22 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Great Power of Prediction from a Massive Photon Hypothesis https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9160 <p>Mass, an inherent property of matter, is calculated directly for the photon particle from the very classical principles of the kinetic theory of gases. That concept of photon mass is nearly as old as physics itself and in fact nothing prevents this approach to be carried out for a so-called quantum particle, not even its minute size. It is not an end result with no perspective nor other outcome. Quite the opposite, a single ponderable tiny photon frees the mind of old ways of thinking and opens up new paths to a broad field of investigation where the very large can then be described and explained by the very small. This reality of a non-zero mass suddenly shows up in the interpretation of many experiments which become clear and simple to comprehend. Besides, that same key particle has the potential to unlock and solve some long lasting major observational issues or enigmas. All this converges upon its acknowledgment and acceptance.</p> Henri CORNIERE Copyright (c) 2022 Henri CORNIERE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9160 Sat, 22 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000