JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. Khalsa Publications en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS 2347-3487 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> The Cause To The Tides <p>Current theories towards the cause of the tides show to be contrary to the laws of nature and that of motion. The correct version for the tides are herewith shown with supporting evidence.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Leonard Van Zanten Copyright (c) 2019 Leonard Van Zanten 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 16 1 1 7 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8114 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of MnO2 / MWCNTs/PVA Nanocomposite <p>Manganese dioxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes MnO<sub>2</sub>/ MWCNTs nanocomposite are synthesized by hydrothermal method. The crystallographic information of the acid-treated MWCNTs and the MnO<sub>2</sub>/ modified MWCNTs nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),Transmission electron microscope (TEM )and &nbsp;FT-IR spectra. Optical and electrical properties of MnO<sub>2</sub> / MWCNTs / PVA nanocomposite thin film with different concentration were studied .UV-VIS absorption spectra shift, at different exposing time , indicated the sensitivity to UV radiation. Optical band gap decreases with increasing time of radiation. &nbsp;Electrical properties of MnO<sub>2</sub> / MWCNTs / PVA nanocomposite thin films with different concentration according to different frequency and exposing time of UV radiation &nbsp;&nbsp;showed semiconducting properties and sensitivity to UV radiation.</p> Safaa Kamel Elmahy Copyright (c) 2019 safaa kamel elmahy 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 16 1 8 18 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8083 Synopsis and Review: Algebraic Quantum Theory of Consciousness by Elio Conte <p>Algebraic Quantum Theory of Consciousness</p> <p>A Solution to the Problem of Quantum Collapse in Systems Having Three Anticommuting Elements</p> <p>ISBN 978-88-255-1707-1, formato 17 x 24 cm, 112 pagine, 14 euro</p> Elio Conte Rich Norman Copyright (c) 2019 Elio Conte, Rich Norman 2019-03-08 2019-03-08 16 1 19 20 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8110 Deterministic Irreversibility and The Matter Structure <p>The role of existence of the deterministic irreversibility mechanism in development of evolution physics is studied. The short explanation of physical essence of this mechanism &nbsp;is offered. Based on this mechanism, is proved, that the base element of matter should be an open non-equilibrium dynamic system (ONDS). The principles of the emergence, existence and development of the ONDS hierarchical structure are considered. The questions&nbsp; about hierarchy of the matter and existence of stationary states ONDS are studied. The question, how external constraints determine of the evolution of ONDS, is analyzed. Equations that determine the development of ONDS are submitted.</p> Vyacheslav Michailovich Somsikov Copyright (c) 2019 Vyacheslav Michailovich Somsikov 2019-03-12 2019-03-12 16 1 21 33 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8109 Law of gravity <p>This essay introduces a realistic look at our laws of gravity, and the effects thereof, and it goes beyond to reveal how and by what gravity comes about in the fundamentals of nature upon which the earth and all spheres rest.</p> Leonard Van Zanten Copyright (c) 2019 Leonard Van Zanten 2019-03-13 2019-03-13 16 1 34 45 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8164 By A Law of Motion into The Cause of Gravity <p>This is an essay written by me when I was yet in my younger years, since then I have simplified the same in several other papers. It intrigues me in my old age now to behold my state of mind in those days long ago.</p> <p>This essay is a review into the fundamentals of the laws of motion, showing the cause to gravitational force to come about in the same laws by which it is governed.&nbsp; We then may be intrigued to behold how this gravitational force finds its birth by way of “movement into movement upon a twofold inertia".&nbsp; And while it may seem acceptable to us that objects are attracted unto one another proportional to their masses, the evidence in both law and experiment are stacked against it.&nbsp; Hence, the property of mass that gives rise to its force of attraction is found to be “its own movement".</p> Leonard Van Zanten Copyright (c) 2019 Leonard Van Zanten 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 16 1 46 54 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8184 Spectroscopy and Conductivity Studies of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Polypyrrol (Ppy) Nanocomposite with Various Chloride Metals to Improved Properties of the Polymers <p>Polyvinyl alcohol- polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) nanocomposites with metal chlorides (FeCl<sub>3</sub>, NiCl<sub>2</sub>, CuCl<sub>2</sub> and ZnCl<sub>2</sub>) have been synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method. These synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Transition electron microscope (TEM) and Conductivity measurement. TEM exhibit that all of the composites have uniform sizes and morphologies.&nbsp; The diameter of PVA/PPy nanocompsite is 58nm when the metals added to the PVA/PPy the diameters becomes smaller. The variation of electrical conductivity (log ?) with 1000/T for PVA/PPy nanocomposite with metal chlorides revealed that the increase in conductivity s at temperature (393K) with added metals can be attributed to the creation of induced charge carriers in PVA/PPy matrix</p> Naglaa Shahin Reham Kamal Abd El Hamid Copyright (c) 2019 Naglaa Shahin, Reham Kamal Abd El Hamid 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 16 1 55 63 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8192 Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of Equivalent Slab thickness over Low and Mid Latitude Regions <p>The equivalent slab-thickness&nbsp; is very important in the study of the complex dynamics of the ionosphere as a result of its ability to determine the skewness of the ionospheric electron density profile. This study involves the day to day and monthly variations of . Ionosonde &nbsp;(FoF2) and Total electron content (TEC) data at the low latitude station of Sao Luis (Glat 2.60° S, Glong 315.80° E and Mlat 6.05° N and Mlong 28.40° E), Brazil and mid latitude station of Chilton (Glat 51.50° N, Glong 359.40° E and Mlat 53.35° N and Mlong 84.34° E), United Kingdom from January 2013 to December 2015 were used in the study of &nbsp;. For Sao Luis station, the diurnal pattern for the different days are characterized by day time (08:00 – 16:00 UT) high values and nighttime (20:00 – 04:00 UT) low values; however, Chilton shows signatures, such as day time low values and nighttime high values. Also, the daytime values (~600 km) of &nbsp;for the low latitude station (Sao Luis) is more than double the mid latitude station (Chilton) maximum value (~235 km) over the years considered. The monthly variation of &nbsp;also indicate a seasonal variation with highest daytime values (400 km) during winter months and lowest (below 300 km) during summer months for the low latitude station (Sao Luis). However, the nighttime values are of the same order (about 200 km) for the low latitude station (Sao Luis). Also, highest daytime values (above 250 km) are observed during summer months and the nighttime values are below 200 km over the years for the mid latitude station (Chilton).</p> Temitope Pascal Owolabi Emmanuel Ariyibi Olatunbosun Lilian Ayomide O Olabode Copyright (c) 2019 Temitope Pascal Owolabi, Emmanuel Ariyibi, Olatunbosun Lilian, Olabode A.O 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 16 1 64 78 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8229 Effect of Terbium Additions on Microstructural, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Sn-3.5Ag Pb- Free Solder for Low Cost Electronic Assembly <p>This work methodically concentrated on the effect of a trace amount of rare earth element terbium, Tb (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 wt. %) on the properties of eutectic Sn-3.5 wt. %Ag were studied. The results indicated that addition of Tb rare earth can be refined the microstructure of the solder and intermetallic compound (IMC) Ag3Sn phase appeared in the solder matrix. Add a few quantity of rare earth Tb enhances the hardness and strength of eutectic Sn-Ag lead free solder joint. Also, results indicate that adding Tb to the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag remarkably enhances solderability, reliability, thermal and mechanical properties. It is also found that increasing in mechanical strength can depend on crystalline size refining in addition to some regular precipitates from IMC, Ag3Sn.</p> Rizk Mostafa Shalaby Fatma Elzahraa Ibrahim Mostafa Kamal Copyright (c) 2019 Rizk Mostafa Shalaby, Fatma Elzahraa Ibrahim, Mostafa Kamal 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 16 1 79 94 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8239 Atomic Quantum Galvanomagnetism Theory <p>The establishment of galvanomagnetics properties inside the atom takes place here, giving sense, on axiomatic form, to a part of these properties. Some concepts are readjusted: quantum gravity is corrected and replaced by its real significance, and the atom pieces are identified through different quantum paths, among other things.</p> Pedro Aragon Copyright (c) 2019 Pedro Aragon 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 16 1 95 110 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8231 The Correlation Between Fluxes of Balmer Emission Lines of H? and H? and Colors of a Galaxy in VNIR Region <p><strong>ABSTRACT </strong></p> <p>We have studied the correlation between the flux and colors of a galaxy sample from SDSS, Data Release 13 as measured by the standard Balmer decrement technique in both visible and near-infrared region, covering the spectral region from (4500-8500) A<sup>o</sup>.</p> <p>We analyzed the spectral properties of the sample in the three (g, r, i) optical bands and found that the main sample tends to be redder which gives an indication that the sample has higher metallicity or older age.</p> <p>We carried out the standard procedures IRAF software package to get a deeper insight into the flux in H<sub>β</sub> and H<sub>α</sub> wavelengths range.</p> <p>We have concluded that the distribution of H- Beta and H- alpha line profiles is Gaussian in the two regions.</p> <p>We found also a linear correlation between Balmer decrement (H<sub>α</sub> /H<sub>β</sub> ) in lognormal units and the rest frame colors of the sample with the best fit of 3.4764.</p> <p>&nbsp;Mean and root means square (rms) profiles of H<sub>β</sub> and H<sub>α</sub> shows a maximum peak in the red region at the radial velocity of 1000km/s and the profiles were high symmetry in this region.</p> Layali AL-Mashhadani Copyright (c) 2019 Layali AL-Mashhadani 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 16 1 111 118 10.24297/jap.v16i1.7390 Study on MHD Cylindrical Couette Flow and Rheological Properties of Some Magnetic Suspensions <p>The study of magnetic suspensions (MS) and magnetic field effects on their rheological properties is of evident practical importance due to its ability to orient and change their physical properties, especially their viscosity, by magnetic fields. This research presents the effect of a uniform magnetic field on the flow of MS in the annular region between two concentric cylinders. The motion of the fluid is due to the rotation of the inner cylinder with a constant angular velocity. An exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in the form of modified Bessel functions of the first and second kinds. The torque, which must be applied to the inner cylinder in order to maintain the rotation, is also calculated. The results show that as the magnetic parameter increases, the velocity profile decreases, while the torque increases due to the effect of magnetic force against the flow direction.</p> <p>In order to model the magnetoviscous effects, experiments were performed for different shear rates and different magnetic field strengths by using specially designed rheometers. The studied samples are iron oxide-water-glycerol system, &nbsp;ferrofluid nanoparticles, MAG DX biocompatible ferrofluid. The theoretical analysis is based on Giesekus model for MS. This model gives more accurate results and takes into account the effects of viscoelastic shear thinning characteristics. It is found that a magnetic field increases the viscosity of all suspensions under consideration. Finally, new proposed correlation for the viscosity of MS as a function of both shear rate and magnetic field has been suggested.</p> S.E. E. Hamza Copyright (c) 2019 S.E. E. Hamza 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 16 1 119 140 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8237 Do Black Holes Really Exist? <p>This article offers a brief critical research of the origins that gave rise to the theory of black holes and the ground on which it is based. The aim is to highlight some contradictions in the interior of the theory itself, which could seriously question their existence.</p> Luciano M.R. Rota Copyright (c) 2019 Luciano M.R. Rota 2019-05-13 2019-05-13 16 1 141 144 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8214 Nature of The Atom <p>The atom as a subject is the most difficult of all subjects and for its many variations extremely large and the most incomprehensive of all phenomena. Nor so I fear will we ever come to a full understanding of it, nor even the half thereof. Yet we must make a start somewhere to learn the principle fashion of its nature and operation that for what I have seen is mostly misunderstood.</p> <p>I now am not enabled to reveal what exactly the atom is, nor how it precisely operates under all conditions, but I am able to grant us a more realistic look into the nature of the atomic nature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Leonard Van Zanten Copyright (c) 2019 Leonard Van Zanten 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 16 1 145 155 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8270 The Effect of Suction and Injection on MHD Flow Between Two Porous Concentric Cylinders Filled with Porous Medium <p>This Paper deals wit the effects of suction (injection) on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady flow of a viscous and electrically conducting fluid in an annular porous region between two concentric cylinders. The inner cylinder is rotating with uniform angular velocity and the outer one is fixed. The two cylinders are&nbsp; porous with uniform permeability. It is assumed that the suction rate at the inner cylinder is equal to the injection rate at the outer cylinder. A uniform axial magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the flow direction. The flow resistance presented by the porous medium is governed by the Darcy law. By using similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations have been transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The solution of the obtained system in its general form has been obtained. Analytical expression for velocity field is obtained in terms of Bessel function of first and second kind. The effects of various parameters such as susction (injection), magnetic and permeability parameters on the flow are discussed and the obtained results are presented graphically. The obtained figures show that, the velocity distribution increased with the increase of permeability parameter of the the porous medium and with suction process. On the other hand, the velocity distribution decreased with the increase of magnetic parameter and with injection parameter.</p> S.E. E. Hamza Copyright (c) 2019 S.E. E. Hamza 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 16 1 156 170 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8273 Indentation Creep and Microstructure Properties of Sn-Ag Solder Alloys <p>The microstructure and micro-hardness of Sn-3.5wt.5%Ag, Sn-3.5wt.%Ag-0.27wt.%Ti and Sn-3.5wt.%Ag-0.27wt.%Cd treated at 75, 100, 125 and 150<sup>o</sup>C were studied. The microstructure characteristics of the tested alloys had been investigated using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The impression creep had been carried out using Vickers micro-hardness indenter under different loads (10, 50 and 100gm). The stress exponent values were found to be varied from 3.2 to 8.4. The energy activating the creep processes support dislocation climb as the rate controlling mechanism. The dislocation mobility was restricted due to the agglomerations of the Ag3Sn eutectic phase in the above three solders. Whereas; the presence of the twinning of ?-Sn phase, and the dispersion of fine CdSn1.9 IMCs throughout Sn-3.5wt.%Ag-0.27wt.%Cd made strongly blockage of the dislocation motion.</p> Amal Mohamed Yassin B.A. Khalifa R. Afify Ismail Copyright (c) 2019 Amal Mohamed Yassin, B.A. Khalifa, R. Afify Ismail 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 16 1 171 184 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8243 Preparation and Characterization of Curcumin Loaded Dextrin Sulfate- Chitosan Nanoparticles for Promoting Curcumin Anticancer Activity <p>Curcumin as a natural medicinal agent has been proved to kill cancer cells effectively. However, its biomedical applications have been hindered owing to its poor bioavailability. Many nanoparticulate systems have been introduced to overcome this problem. Among this types polymeric-based nanoparticles which exhibit unique properties allowing their use as a efficient drug carrier. Developing a polymeric- blend nanoparticles will offer a promising nanocarrier with excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogencity.</p> <p>In this study, curcumin nano-vehicle has been made up by combining dextren sulfate and chitosan (DSCSNPs). DSCSNPs have been characterized using different techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which revealed the spherical, smooth surface of the nano-formulation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) for measuring DSCSNPs hydrodynamic- diameter. Zeta potential measurements showed nanoparticles high stability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed &nbsp;successful combination between the two polymers and curcumin loading on naoparticles surface. Curcumin release profile out of DSCSNPs showed high drug release in tumor acidic microenvironment. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements demonstrated that curcumin loaded polymeric nanoparticles (DSCSNPs-Cur) have high therapeutic efficacy against colon (HCT-116) and breast &nbsp;(MCF-7) cancer cells compared with free curcumin. &nbsp;DSCSNPs as a combined biopolymers is an excellent candidate for improving curcumin bioavailability &nbsp;allowing its use as anticancer &nbsp;agent.</p> Nihal S Elbialy Copyright (c) 2019 Nihal S Elbialy 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 16 1 185 195 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8276 MWCNTs/ZnO Nanofibers Fabrication, Properties and Applications <p>Electrospun MWCNTs nanofibers (CNF1, CNF2 and CNF3) with different concentrations of MWCNTs (0.3, 1.5, 2 wt%), respectively, were deposited on Aluminum foil substrates.&nbsp; Also,Zinc AcetatedihydrateZn(CH3COO)<sub>2</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O (ZNF) and MWCNTs/zinc acetate (CZNF)nanofiberswere deposited on Aluminum foil substratesand annealed in the presence of oxygen at 400 <sup>o</sup>C. The resultant fibers were characterized using X-ray differaction (XRD), scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrophotometry (SEM,EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). SEM,EDX and FTIR exhibited a total decomposition of the organic precursor after calcination and formation of zinc oxide (ZONF and CZONF). The mean fiber diameter was found to be increased with increasing MWCNTs concentration and ranged 490-767 nm. XRD patterns indicated that ZnO was corundum with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of ZONF and CZONF were determined by shurrer equation to be26 and&nbsp; 29.7&nbsp; nm, respectively. The optical analysis indicated that the percentage transmittance increased after calcination.The band gap for the electrospun fibers before and after calcination was calculated. CZONF nanofibers have elec­trical properties similar to those of semiconductors. The testedcompounds CNF2, CNF3, CZNF and CZONF exhibited different activities against the bacteriaand yeast pathogen <em>Candidaalbicans</em>. CZNF compound is the most active against the bacteria and yeast pathogen. So, these compounds can be used as food packaging.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Magda Dawy Badry Copyright (c) 2019 Magda Dawy Badry 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 16 1 196 211 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8274 Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and PIXE for Differentiation Between Different Tungsten Alloys <p>Tungsten is one of the hardest metals that has high melting point and high thermal conductivity. These unique properties make it suitable for many industrial applications. The increasing demand for using tungsten made the need for a fast and reliable analytical technique for tungsten to increase. In this paper we are comparing the ability of LIBS as a multi-elemental analysis technique to PIXE which is a well known established multi-elemental technique in the analysis of tungsten alloys. It was found that LIBS has the advantage over PIXE in the detection of the trace and minor elements. While PIXE is better than LIBS in the detection of major elements in the samples.</p> Ahmed Galmed Copyright (c) 2019 Ahmed Galmed 2019-07-05 2019-07-05 16 1 212 220 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8326 Enhancement of MRI Imaging by Combining Ramp Sampling and Parallel Imaging Techniques in Cerebral Tumors <p>Our aim was to decrease geometric distortion artifact in DWI on brain by using different MR techniques such as ramp sampling and parallel imaging. The study was done on 15 patients, They were subject to routine brain MRI examination for different symptoms, examination was done on 1.5 T scanner, patients were divided to three group five patient in each group, geometric distortion in frontal and occipital lobe measured in the routine acquired DWI and after used the interested strategy compared to anatomical T2-FSE acquired in the routine examination then reduction percentage for each strategy was calculated.&nbsp; Application of parallel technique imaging showed significant artifact reduction&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in frontal lobe with approximately 54.36 % and about 34.8% in occipital lobe, while ramp sampling showed reduction with approximately 19% in frontal lobe and reduced artifact by 41.58%&nbsp;&nbsp; in the occipital lobe.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Finally we conclude that using new techniques such as ramp sampling and parallel imaging&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; used with EPI data acquisition&nbsp;&nbsp; reduced geometric distortion artifact and increased geometric resolution.</p> Ehab A Hegazy Copyright (c) 2019 ehab A Hegazy 2019-07-09 2019-07-09 16 1 221 236 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8328 Anti-aging Effect of Free Curcumin and Niosome Entrapping Curcumin in H2O2-induced Aging in Human Fibroblast Cell Lines <p>Aging is not a disease but it a changes that come with time, aging may make an individual susceptible to disease. Exposure to smoke, UV radiation, chemicals or other exogenous agents over time can damage cells, as can produce DNA replication errors or oxidative stress. The use of antioxidant curcumin can produce intracellular defenses in addition to low expensive and no side effect. In the present study, hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) was used to produce oxidative stress in Human Fibroblast cell lines (HFB4) and free curcumin and niosome entrapping curcumin treatments are used for aged HFB4 cell lines. Using Flowcytometry analysis, p 16 INK4a and p53 BP1 genes levels were investigated as aging biomarkers. Result show that H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treated cell lines are highly elevate p16 INK4a and p53 BP1 genes. While HFB4 cells treated with &nbsp;free curcumin and niosome entrapping curcumin were significantly protected against aged process.</p> Ebtesam Mohammad Copyright (c) 2019 Ebtesam Mohammad 2019-07-09 2019-07-09 16 1 237 246 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8230 Power of Magnetic <p>The theme here is about magnetism and what is produced by it, looking at the sun, the earth, as well as the atom, and in general. It also shows magnetic for its nature of - with or without pressure to limit the velocity of the relative movement upon atoms and molecules. Our interpretation for temperature as well as other factors related to the stars are updated to include such factors as we apparently are unaware of. And it goes into a summary view of gravity in how it relates to the power of magnetic. And the unique nature of magnetic how it is in physics as well as mentally portrayed. One might say; "A look inside the mind of the author."</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Leonard Van Zanten Copyright (c) 2019 Leonard Van Zanten 2019-07-23 2019-07-23 16 1 247 271 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8329 Comparison Between Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter and Planning System Dose Calculation in The Brain and Spinal Cord Tumour <p>Radiotherapy of Spinal cord and brain tumor requires High care due to considerable changes in the white matter of the brain, which consequently lead to a reduction of patient learning and mental skills. It is considered a very critical tumor due to high sensitivity of gross volume location and normal tissues surrounding it, including eye, heart, plate thyroid, and testis. XiO planning systems, TLD dosimeter found in Mansoura university oncology department, CMS XIO USA TPS were compared using electron and photon beams with different energies at a different site in target volume and organs at risk. We conclude that regular calibration of planning systems and direct measurement of the dose delivered to main target and organs at risk should be done to avoid the difference between XiO planning systems and direct measurement by TLd.</p> Ehab A Hegazy Copyright (c) 2019 Ehab A Hegazy 2019-08-07 2019-08-07 16 1 272 279 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8375 Optical And Electrical Properties of PVA/A-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Films <p>In the present study, a-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> nanoparticles were synthesized using the citrate-nitrate auto combustion method. Nanocomposites of PVA/a-Al2O3 were intended by solution casting technique. The micrograph of samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis. UV-visible results showed that the direct optical band gap decreased with the increase of a-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> content. The refractive index has been dissected using Wemple and DiDomenico model. Hopping of charge carriers besides interfacial polarization could expound the demeanor of dielectric constant (E'), dielectric loss (E'') and ac electrical conductivity (0<sup>-</sup>ac) with the frequency and temperatures.</p> Sara El-Molla R. Mahmoud A.F. Mansour S.F. Mansour M.A. Abdo Copyright (c) 2019 Sara El-Molla 2019-08-07 2019-08-07 16 1 280 298 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8362 Mechanical Bending Effects on Hydrogen Storage of Ni Decorated (8, 0) Boron Nitride Nanotube: DFT Study <p>The influence of mechanical bending to tuning the hydrogen storage of Ni-functionalized of zigzag type of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) with reference to the ultimate targets of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single Ni atoms prefer to bind strongly at the axial bridge site of BN nanotube, and each Ni atom bound on BNNT may adsorb up to five, H<sub>2</sub> molecules, with average adsorption energies per hydrogen molecule of )-1.622,-0.527 eV( for the undeformed B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 0 , ) -1.62 , 0-0.308 eV( for the deformed B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 15, ) -1.589, &nbsp;-0.310 eV( for the deformed B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 30, and ) -1.368- &nbsp;-0.323 eV( for the deformed B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 45 nanotubes respectively. with the H-H bonds between H<sub>2</sub> molecules significantly elongated. The curvature attributed to the bending angle has effect on average adsorption energies per H<sub>2</sub> molecule. With no metal clustering, the system gravimetric capacities are expected to be as large as 5.691 wt % for 5H<sub>2</sub> Ni B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 0, 15, 30, 45. While the desorption activation barriers of the complexes nH<sub>2 </sub>+ Ni B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 0 (n = 1-4) are outside the (DOE) domain (-0.2 to -0.6 eV), the complexes nH<sub>2 </sub>+ Ni- B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 0 (n = 5) is inside this domain. For nH<sub>2 </sub>+ Ni- B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 15, 30, 45 with (n = 1-2) are outside the (DOE) domain, the complexes nH<sub>2 </sub>+ Ni- B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 15, 30, 45 with (n = 3-5) are inside this domain. The hydrogen storage of the irreversible 4H<sub>2</sub>+ Ni- B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 0, 2H<sub>2</sub>+ Ni- B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 15, 30, 45 and reversible 5H<sub>2</sub>+ Ni- B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 0, 3H<sub>2</sub>+ Ni- B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-? = 15, 30, 45 interactions are characterized in terms of density of states, pairwise and non-pairwise additivity, infrared, Raman, electrophilicity and molecular electrostatic potentials. Our calculations expect that 5H<sub>2</sub>- Ni- B<sub>40</sub>N<sub>40</sub>-j = 0, 15, 30, 45 complexes are promising hydrogen storage candidates.</p> atef elmahdy hayam taha mohamed kamel menna Tarek Copyright (c) 2019 atef elmahdy, hayam taha, dr, mohamed kamel, prof, menna Tarek, miss 2019-08-10 2019-08-10 16 1 299 325 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8389 Physics from Axioms <p>We introduce a definition of Time and Photons from four Axioms. Basically you take a 4-dimensional manifold, transform them into two superimposed Riemann Spheres and isolate a circle (call this Pp) in one of the spheres. Then one specifies the circle to turn by a unit amount (the turn is an quantum rotation: turn from state A to state B without visiting the in between states) as measured along the circle, every time the Pp encounters a space point. Space fluctuates and expands so this does not give a static circle Pp. The circle's infinity point stays at the north pole of the Riemann Sphere for any finite rotation since: infinity - constant = infinity. Using this one can define basic spacetime and from basic spacetime, Time can be defined if we require special particles to be in the particles of a clock. We go on to define photons and antiphotons. The model predicts that there is a direction in which photons (from the same process) are never emitted. We continue to define a pi-minus.</p> Willem Francois Esterhuyse Copyright (c) 2019 Willem Francois Esterhuyse 2019-08-14 2019-08-14 16 1 326 334 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8382 Fine-structure constant from Sommerfeld to Feynman <p>The fine-structure constant, which determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction, is briefly reviewed beginning with its introduction by Arnold Sommerfeld and also includes the interest of Wolfgang Pauli, Paul Dirac, Richard Feynman and others. Sommerfeld was very much a Pythagorean and sometimes compared to Johannes Kepler. The archetypal Pythagorean triangle has long been known as a hiding place for the golden ratio. More recently, the quartic polynomial has also been found as a hiding place for the golden ratio. The Kepler triangle, with its golden ratio proportions, is also a Pythagorean triangle. Combining classical harmonic proportions derived from Kepler’s triangle with quartic equations determine an approximate value for the fine-structure constant that is the same as that found in our previous work with the golden ratio geometry of the hydrogen atom. These results make further progress toward an understanding of the golden ratio as the basis for the fine-structure constant.</p> Michael A. Sherbon Copyright (c) 2019 Michael A. Sherbon 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 16 1 335 343 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8402 A Trial to Predict the Diurnal Global Solar Irradiance Received On A Horizontal Plane for Clear Days in Terms of The Solar Angles. <p>A general distribution function is suggested to predict both symmetrical and asymmetric diurnal global solar irradiance q (t) W/m<sup>2</sup> received on a horizontal surface, where “t” is the local day time "h" .The distribution is given in terms of well-established parameters, namely: t<sub>d</sub> :- the length of the solar day expressed in term of the solar angles.</p> <p>t<sub>max</sub> :- the time of the day at which the irradiance reaches its maximum value q<sub>max</sub> W/m<sup>2</sup> for symmetrical distribution&nbsp; t<sub>max</sub> = &nbsp; i.e. &nbsp;it occurs at the midday time.</p> <p>t<sub>d</sub> , t<sub>max</sub> and q<sub>max</sub> are taken as parameters.</p> <p>The suggested expression can be easily integrated along the length of the day time. This gives the daily totals of the received solar energy per unit horizontal area.This is of vital technical importance for solar energy exploitations and applications. &nbsp;Comparison between computed according to the present model and published experimental meteorological data in Barcelona (Spain), Hong Kong (China), Jeddah and Makah (Saudi Arabia) is given as illustrative examples. Comparison with the published trials for the same locations is also clarified. The introduced model itself gives good fitting for the intermediate interval points of the local day time which is the more effective region.</p> Samia Sayed Shaban Copyright (c) 2019 Samia Sayed Shaban 2019-09-13 2019-09-13 16 1 344 354 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8418 The Inverse Infinite Spiral Placement of Prime Numbers and Their Derivatives at the Cone of Pythagoras 1:3 <p>All mathematics of placement in this paper is mathematically absolute and precise by clear mathematics. This paper(<strong>section1</strong>) is the very basic “synopsis” of an upcoming book by the author “The God of Papa Einstein and Sir Isaac Newton “. It delineates the predictable expanding spirals of the prime numbers and their derivatives, by two cords, that hug the half-line of the 1:3 Pythagoras inverse cone. The <em>inner spiral</em> of all predictable spirals of prime numbers and their derivatives and the <em>outer spiral</em> at the predictable template of a spiral of prime number 5(+10,+20 alternate), which is the exact replicate of the <em>inner spiral</em> of prime numbers and their derivatives. The two spirals expand at two separate predictable geometric intervals, the <em>outer spiral</em> expanding predictably slower than the inner spiral as a replicate in geometric placement and in a sieve . These prime numbers and their derivatives ( Pseudo prime numbers) are sieved by placement in the continuum&nbsp; by a&nbsp; predictable formula demonstrated by the table at the end of this paper.</p> <p>In a separate exhaustive (<strong>Section 11) </strong>of this paper to be submitted separately, the author along with a contributing physicist discusses the synopsis of the &nbsp;patent configuration of prime numbers at the 1:3 cone, that is the &nbsp;genesis of the curvature of space and format -1 zero by the placement of prime numbers and their derivatives .”The mother of all science is mathematics”, this paper celebrates that dictum.</p> Vinoo Cameron Copyright (c) 2019 Vinoo Cameron 2019-09-25 2019-09-25 16 1 355 361 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8437 Golden Ratio Geometry and the Fine-Structure Constant <p>The golden ratio is found to be related to the fine-structure constant, which determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. The golden ratio and classical harmonic proportions with quartic equations give an approximate value for the inverse fine-structure constant the same as that discovered previously in the geometry of the hydrogen atom. With the former golden ratio results, relationships are also shown between the four fundamental forces of nature: electromagnetism, the weak force, the strong force, and the force of gravitation.</p> Michael A. Sherbon Copyright (c) 2019 Michael A. Sherbon 2019-10-22 2019-10-22 16 1 362 368 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8469 The Inverse Precise Placement of Numbers Based at Pythagoras 1:3 and the Precise Configuration of Numbers as the Basis of a Unified Theorem That Binds the Physics of Mass, Space, Energy and the Torque Power (Inertia) That Sustains the Finite Universe. <p>This paper is based on the precise inverse cone of Pythagoras 1:3. As in section 1 of this paper, all mathematics presented in this paper is by precise &nbsp;mathematics equations and the author has maintained by proof that the base numbers constant from which all physics constants can be derived are -1 to 19 ( the value 6 is&nbsp; as per this paper is the constant for expansion of&nbsp; all bounded space and 19 is the patent “end value” of the base constant numbers as shown in section 1 and &nbsp;referenced in this section11). Numbers <em>as created</em> and as placed at the cone of Pythagoras 1:3 are precise manifestation of the numbers of linear composite. However, this paper shows that the invention of designated angles (Trigonometry) is an approximate arbitrary arrangement invented by man, based on the created fixed angle of 90 degrees and is certainly flawed as shown here in this paper. Likewise, any attempts to measure curvature by linear numbers is fraught with much error. The author maintains that “If the atomic density and structure of &nbsp;meteorites from far space have the same configuration as those found on this earth, then by all created logic , these numbers configuration presented in&nbsp; these two papers and the book (The God of Papa Einstein and Sir Isaac Newton) are a constant unified theorem of &nbsp;all the space and mass ( &nbsp;Quantum mechanics) in the universe”. Einstein’s Theory of relativity and all other interstellar phenomena are not addressed in the context of this paper because all this is observed science phenomena and not a physical science, and this paper deals with precise numbers configuration as in the section 1 of the paper. Einstein’s relativity is a <em>real observed natural phenomenon</em>, not science by itself, it is a natural aberration of the fact that observed relativity is due to inherent curvature and linear relationship between any two points in the universe and because of the spiral progression of curved space. Neither does light bend it appears to bend, nor does time really dilate in real terms even though it is a real observed phenomenon, neither numbers or distances dilate by any continuum, unfortunately, that is why Einstein’s misconception about time dilation is a Theory and will always be Theory.</p> Vinoo Cameron Copyright (c) 2019 Vinoo cameron 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 16 1 369 371 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8483 Sense and Motion: The Barrier Preventing Us from Understanding Motion <p>Currently, scientific study and advancements are at odds with the natural motion systems that surround us. This paper explores how it is our sensory form and the cognition developed upon this sensory form that creates a barrier preventing us from truly understanding the laws of motion. It begins by isolating and defining two distinct forms of information and information processing mechanisms: motion information and integrated information. From this new perspective, it then explains how our sensory system is necessarily based on an integrated information mechanism to support basic survival needs, but is essentially blind to the true features of motion.&nbsp; The far-reaching effects of this discovery include the limitations within our cognitive mode and the current methods of scientific study and development.</p> Aaron Fu Copyright (c) 2019 Aaron Fu 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 16 1 372 376 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8468 Study The Influence of The Number of Beams on Radiotherapy Plans for The Hyopfractionated Treatment of Breast Cancer Using Biological Model <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To evaluate the biologic differences in treatment plans with different number of beams on 3D conformal radiotherapy for breast cancer patients, and compute the percent of probability to tumor control and complication of normal tissue probability using matlap program. Then determine the optimum plan through these values.</p> Z. Mansour Ehab M. Attalla A. Sarhan Ibrahim A. Awad M.I. Abdel Hamid Copyright (c) 2019 Z. Mansour, Ehab M. Attalla, A. Sarhan, Ibrahim A. Awad , M.I. Abdel Hamid 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 16 1 377 390 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8460 Possible Explanation of the Quark Confinement and Asymptotic Freedom, and Possible Solution to the Yang-Mills Mass Gap Problem <p>With this work, we try to answer 3 fundamental questions that have plagued mathematicians and physicists for several decades. As known, the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) and the Brout-Englert-Higgs Mechanism (BEH-M) solved the Yang-Mills Mass Gap Problem. However, various mathematicians, even prestigious ones, consider the basic assumptions of the gauge theories to be wrong, as well as in conflict with the experimental evidences and in clear disagreement with the facts, distorcing the physical reality itself. Likewise, the Quantum Fields Theory (QFT) is mathematically inconsistent, adopting a mathematical structure somewhat complicated and arbitrary, which does not satisfy the strong demands for coherence. The weakest point of the gauge theories, in our opinion, consists in imposing that all the particles must be free of an intrinsic mass (massless).</p> <p>On the contrary, even for the particle considered universally massless, i.e. the photon (P), our calculations show a dynamic-mass, a push-momentum (p) of 1.325⋅10−22[g⋅cm/s]. That is, an optic P hits a particle with an energy-mass greater than 100 protons rest-mass’. It is clear that if we replaced this value with the full value of the P inserted in the equations of the Perturbation Theory, QFT and Yang-Mills theories, all divergences, that is all zeroes and infinities, would suddenly disappear.</p> <p>Consequently, the limits imposed by the SSB disappear so that there is no longer any need to deny the mass to the Nuclear Forces bosons, including the Yang-Mills b quantum. Still, the photons (Ps) are the basis of the quantum vacuum energy, which is distributed ubiquitously, also within the intra-atomic spaces. It is likely that a lot of Ps were trapped in atomic nuclei (at the time of nucleosynthesis) and among quarks (Qs) at the time of primordial nucleonic synthesis. We believe that when Qs get too close to each other, till repelling each other (Asymptotic Freedom of Qs), this may depend on the presence of a multitude of Ps that, no further compressible, begin to exert an antigravity repulsive force, just as a Dark Energy. This limit to Compressibility (C) of the radiation is shown in equation: PV 4/3 = C, where V is the volume, and P is the Pressure of the photonic gas. Quantum Mechanics plays a crucial role, through the Uncertainty Principle, in the spatial Confinement of Qs, which have remained eternally confined in an extremely narrow space by the&nbsp; Strong Interaction, but in primis by the very short range (likely ≈8.44[±1.44]⋅10-16cm) and lifetime of gluon(G) which, from our calculations, is ≈2.73[±0.564]⋅10-26 sec. Therefore, a new parameter may be added to the Qs and G spatial Confinement: the b quantum or G Temporal Confinement (and of their Colours and anti-Colours).&nbsp;</p> Antonio Puccini Copyright (c) 2019 Antonio Puccini 2019-11-04 2019-11-04 16 1 391 478 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8492 The Algorithm of Information and the Origin of Basic Particles <p>Everything is information because everything will inform you about itself through our senses, there is no other way to say it when discussing the philosophy of science. All information has similar basic characteristics including randomness. The reality of randomness gave the concepts to the theory of the algorithm of information the basis of all degrees of randomness. Everything is about relationships; the algorithm of information is the tool existence uses to determine the chances of relationships. If everything is about relationships, then relationships must begin with the particles. Not the basic particles having relationships with other basic particles as it was first postulated. The basic particle itself must be the result of an event and thus a relationship, it was not always there. This paper aims to shed some light on the question of where do particles come from? What relationships led to the event that created elementary particles?</p> Bhekuzulu Khumalo Copyright (c) 2019 Bhekuzulu Khumalo 2019-11-07 2019-11-07 16 1 479 497 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8485 Random Stability of Quadratic Functional Equations <p>In this paper, we investigate the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability on random -normed spaces associated with the following generalized quadratic functional equation <img src="/public/site/images/editor/8373_11.PNG"><img src="/public/site/images/editor/8373_2.PNG">,where &nbsp;is a fixed positive integer via two methods</p> Mee Kwang Kang Copyright (c) 2019 Mee Kwang Kang 2019-11-09 2019-11-09 16 1 498 507 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8373 New Look at an Old Principle: An Alternative Formulation of The Theorem of Minimum Entropy Production <p>We formulate a direct generalization of the Prigogine’s principle of minimum entropy production, according to a new isoperimetric variation principle by classical non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We focus our attention on the possible mathematical forms of constitutive equations. Our results show that the Onsager’s reciprocity relations are consequences of the suggested variation principle. Furthermore, we show by the example of the thermo-diffusion such reciprocity relations for diffusion tensor, which are missing in Onsager’s theory. Our theorem applied to the non-linear constitutive equations indicates the existence of dissipation potential. We study the forms of general reciprocity with the dissipation potential. This consideration results in a weaker condition than Li-Gyarmati-Rysselberhe reciprocity has. Furthermore, in the case of electric conductivity in the magnetic field, our theorem shows the correct dependence of the Onsager’s kinetic coefficient by the axial vector of magnetic induction. We show in general that the evolution criterion of the global entropy production is a Lyapunov-function, and so the final stationer state is independent of the initial, time-independent boundary conditions.</p> Gyula Vincze Andras Szasz Copyright (c) 2019 Gyula Vincze, Andras Szasz 2019-11-16 2019-11-16 16 1 508 517 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8516 The Mathematical Constant of Bound Space at Value 8 And -1 Constant <p>This paper is to validate by perfect mathematics / geometry the rationale behind the papers of this author published by the journal “Math Lab” and Journal of “Advances in Physics (JAP)” as referenced below. This explanatory paper is complimentary to the published papers. The square (2:2) and a rectangle (1:3) of the same value 8 by length, represents the maximal infinite and the least finite value enclosed by the same value 8 , and that the difference by area is a constant whole number -1 in all of mathematics and physics ( 2*2-1*3=1).</p> Vinoo Cameron Copyright (c) 2019 Vinoo cameron 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 16 1 518 523 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8525