JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS Khalsa Publications en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS 2347-3487 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a> All articles published in <em>Journal of Advances in Linguistics</em> are licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> The effects of buckling on the electronic, thermal, and optical features of a GaP nanosheet <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In this paper, an investigation into the electronic, thermal, and optical properties of a nanosheet made of Gallium Phosphide (GaP) via density functional theory (DFT). Our analysis focuses on the impact of buckling processes on these features. The utilization of buckling has been demonstrated to adjust the electronic thermal, and optical characteristics of a GaP nanosheet, including the energy gap, total energy, dielectric function, refractive index, and absorption coefficient. Consequently, the application of buckling in the GaP nanosheet allows for the modulation of its indirect band gap. The feasibility of synthesizing GaP nanosheets experimentally has been proven as these nanosheets exhibit both dynamic and thermal stability. Furthermore, buckling resulted in a broadening and a conspicuous shift towards lower energy in the optical phenomena as the degree of buckling increased. Therefore, it can be concluded that buckling serves as an additional parameter for enhancing the performance of GaP nanosheets in optoelectronic applications.</span></p> W. A. Abdul- Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 W. A. Abdul- Hussein 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 21 131 138 10.24297/jap.v21i.9525 Sayed`s Theory of Everything (S-TOE): The Acting Unified Forces in the Universe for Cosmological and Subatomic Scale <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Allah, the Creator, is the only Singular Super Force. A unified theory for the </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">major</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">forces</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> gravity, weak, electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces is an intractable challenge to the scientists. This article is an innovative theory for unification of all forces in the universe; S-TOE. My published theory on quantum gravity was the first step. The main parameters and equations of the starting spherical singularity bubble of the early universe; acceleration, wavelength, radius, pressure and speed, were simply derived; named Sayed`s unified forces formula (SUFF). The violation of light speed at the early beginning of universe was dramatically found; </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3.93 x 10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">27 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">m/s. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">The wavelength (λ) was also calculated and found to be </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">1.321 x 10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-15</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> m. The difference, between the calculated force (</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">9.29</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">x10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">24</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> N) using SUFF and the Planck force (</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">1.2103 x 10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">44 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">N) </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">is</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">might be</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> due to contribution of other predicted forces. The calculated acceleration matches with Planck acceleration. Uniquely in this theory, the dark matter, dark energy and antimatter are among the acting forces control the universe. The Sayed`s forces diagram (SFD) is postulated and given. The anti-force term and concept is introduced to describe the opposite role of dark energy and matter. All the mentioned forces work together to keep the universe stable, expandable and equilibrium. Finally, it can be stated that some of the major universal constants need essential revision.</span></p> Sayed Ali El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2023 Sayed Ali El-Mongy 2023-09-12 2023-09-12 21 121 130 10.24297/jap.v21i.9518 SCIENCE TO REALITY. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Without knowledge physics is devoid of its means to reality. Without wisdom insight remains hidden. And while eyesight is a grandiose thing it is prone to deception. And sight deception however innocent leads to errors. As then nearly all things can be overcome so can the lack of knowledge and insight.</span></p> Leonard Van Zanten Copyright (c) 2023 Leonard Van Zanten 2023-09-01 2023-09-01 21 110 120 10.24297/jap.v21i.9512 Origin of Prebiotic Organics and Oxygen on Earth. A case for the Pre-Photosynthetic and Carbonyl Sulfide Catalyzed Reduction of Carbon Dioxide by Water, Methane, Ammonia and Hydrogen sulfide. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">It is estimated that the earth is about 4.5 billion years old and it is now believed that by 4.3 billion years ago, earth may have developed physico-chemical conditions suitable to support life, when its atmosphere consisted largely of water (H2O) vapor, nitrogen (N2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) with much smaller amounts of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other sulfur compounds like carbonyl sulfide (COS), and the earth had a reducing atmosphere without any free oxygen. The oldest known fossil records show that life came into being about 3.7 billion years ago. It is also believed that life proliferated and evolved in largest scale only after first aoxygenic photosynthesis by viruses and then oxygenic photosynthesis by plants produced large scale biochemocules and molecular oxygen (O2). But this necessitated a period of the evolution of primitive life forms like reprocing cells, which required enormous carbon-based prebiotic chemicals mediated by dialectical chance and necessity as is the case with later biological evolution. This had to involve the production within about a billion years, of specific prebiotic ingradients in enough quantities, in sufficient concentration in a limited, dynamic and physicochemically suitable localized evironment. But only the few primitive chemical compounds mentioned above, most abundent being H2O and CO2 , laready existing on earth, potentially could be source of enormous amount and variety of prebiotic chemicals necessary for the formation the first reproducing cell. Based on the SET (Selective Energy Transfer Theory) developed by one of us (RL), we have reason to speculate for the first time that the carbonyl sulphide (COS) catalyzed reduction of CO2 by H2O and by other less abundant molecules like CH4, NH3 and H2S was the decisive prerequisite for the formation of prebiotic chemical ingredients and for the chemical evolution of the first reproducing cell on Earth. </span></p> Ragnar Larsson Abdul Malek Copyright (c) 2023 Ragnar Larsson, Abdul Malek 2023-08-23 2023-08-23 21 102 109 10.24297/jap.v21i.9506 ATOMIC REACTIONS <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Man constructed the atomic bomb without knowing its fundamentals, creating his vision of things by sight deception. He has his seasons but does not know how these come about, other than by error in sight deception. And so it is with most of his theories, while it will enhance him to come to a truth, as it will be in the centuries to come.</span></p> Leonard Van Zanten Copyright (c) 2023 Leonard Van Zanten 2023-08-19 2023-08-19 21 87 101 10.24297/jap.v21i.9505 Relative and Absolute Stellar Aberration <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #000000;">If we talk about Stellar Aberration, then we think of the form of Stellar Aberration that was first discovered<br /> and explained by Bradley. In addition to </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #000000;">Bradley's</span><span style="color: #000000;"> Stellar Aberration, which can also be defined<br /> as Relative Stellar Aberration, we will define Absolute Stellar Aberration based on just one measurement.<br /> Here after we will refer to the Absolute Stellar Aberration as </span><span style="color: #008000;">$ASA$</span><span style="color: #000000;">. We will try to explain in a few words why<br /> it is necessary to measure and interpret Stellar Aberration in this way. Suppose we performed two measurements<br /> of the Doppler Effect within six months. If we don't know the results of those measurements, <br />but only difference between them, then we cannot determine the radial velocities with which the observer <br />moves with respect to the star. We will prove that similar reasoning can be applied in the case of<br /> Stellar Aberration as defined by Bradley. Knowing only the difference between the two measurements<br /> of the Stellar Aberration, we are not able to determine the transverse velocities the observer moves<br /> with respect to the line of sight, but only their difference. Using the results of </span><span style="color: #008000;">$ASA$</span><span style="color: #000000;"> measurements,<br /> we will determine a Reference Inertial Frame and after that derive formulas for <br />Relative and Absolute Stellar Aberration.</span></pre> Miloš Čojanović Copyright (c) 2023 Miloš Čojanović 2023-07-08 2023-07-08 21 73 86 10.24297/jap.v21i.9474 Superconducting Field Theory (Theory of Everything) <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Unification theory with no extra dimensions, using a vacuum structure and opposite from fields based. The first part deals with the unification of the strong nuclear force and the gravitational force. Strong nuclear force, with an attraction of 10.000 Newtons is which makes space to curve generating acceleration, more matter, more acceleration. Gravitational force is moved to work with more than 30 decimals. The second part describes the hypothetical structure for the quantum vacuum to be able to work as a superconductor of matter as well as of smaller subatomic particles (like photons or neutrinos) inside a 3 states multistable system that allows fundamental particles motion as described in the Standard Model.</span></p> Sergio Perez Felipe Copyright (c) 2023 Sergio Perez Felipe 2023-06-26 2023-06-26 21 63 72 10.24297/jap.v21i.9464 On the electromagnetic symmetry producing fields charges at four bosons association <p>Physics would like to know what electric charge is. As a matter property it generates EM fields, coupling constant,<br />conserved current. Nevertheless Maxwell is uncomplete. It requires to be extended. An approach is supported by<br />electric charge transfer phenomenology. Consider on three flavours charges {+, 0, −} transmission.<br />A generic electric charge is defined by the triad {+, 0, −}. It provides an exchange charge physics through the<br />quadruplet {Aμ, Uμ, V ±</p> <p>μ }. An electromagnetic symmetry is constituted. It associates the four vectorial bosons. The<br />EM completeness of particles carrying three electric charges is found. A four photons EM is derived. It includes, Aμ as<br />the usual photon, Uμ massive photon, V<br />±<br />μ massive charged photons.</p> <p>A new electromagnetic physics is expressed through an enlarged abelian symmetry, Uq(1). Maxwell relationships<br />between charge and fields are extended. Fields charges are more primitive than electric charge. Noether theorem<br />improves the attributes on electric charge conservation, symmetry equation and constraint. The symmetry equation<br />which govern the electric charge dynamics shows a charge behaviour beyond matter, as fields flux. EM interaction is<br />extended from fine structure constant to modulated and neutral charges.<br />The four bosons electromagnetism introduces a non-univoque electromagnetic symmetry. A pluriformity of EM models<br />is performed under similar abelian group, Uq(1). Opportunities for different EM models are constituted preserving<br />charge conservation law and sharing a common Lagrangian. Physical varieties on Noether theorem, fields strengths,<br />Lagrangian coefficients, equations of motion, fields charges are expressed. Electric charge is englobed by fields charges.<br />The simplest four bosons model is selected. That one which fields strengths are gauge invariants. Propitiating<br />measurable granular and collective fields strenghts. Four kinds of charges are expressed through equations of motion.<br />Electric, modulate, neutral and Bianchi. Allowing to include new EM sectors. Extend Maxwell for nonintegers charges,<br />nonlinearity, neutral EM, spintronics, weak interactions, photonics. A new EM energy emerges.</p> R. Doria L.S. Mendes Copyright (c) 2023 R. Doria, L.S. Mendes 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 21 34 62 10.24297/jap.v21i.9437 Theory of the Unified Gravity: Sayed’s Quantum Gravity Force (SQGF) as a Function in Wavelength and Planck Length with Inevitability of Light Speed Violation <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Nothing by chance, everything was created by Allah (God). Quantum gravity (QG) is a hundred year unsolved puzzle and nagging mystery. This article introduces an innovative theory to describe quantum gravity by merging Newtonian, general relativity and quantum mechanics concepts. A unified formula and equations for quantifying and defining the quantum gravity was derived. It is called Sayed`s quantum gravity force (SQGF). It can be concluded that the gravity is a force inversely proportional to the square of the gravity quanta wavelength and distance; it is not only due to warping and curvature of the space-time fabric. The derived equation indicates that the gravity is also quantized. The Sayed`s gravitational constant (</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">A</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">s</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">M</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">) was given. The SQGF formula was validated and verified by check its units and calculations of the wavelengths in the micro and macroscopic scale. For the micro gravity force of 1µN (1 micro Newton), the wavelength was calculated. It was found to be in the measurable range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The quanta gravity wavelength of values 5.6026 x 10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-9</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> m and 2.83457 x 10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-13</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> m were found for Planck scale and electron-proton of H-atom respectively. A proposed approach to measure the relative gravity wavelengths is given. It can revolutionary be concluded that the speed of light is a variable. The violation of light speed is a must for the instantaneous nature of the gravity quanta and the entanglement phenomena.</span></p> Sayed A. El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2023 Sayed A. El-Mongy 2023-04-16 2023-04-16 21 25 33 10.24297/jap.v21i.9414 Variations of Signal Strength during Solar Bursts: A Probable Coronal and Surface Effects of the Sun <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Variations of signal strengths during solar bursts recorded at Kalyani corresponding to two different frequencies, 406.7 MHz and 100 MHz are reported. The amplitude of the signals received at 406.7 MHz is found larger and that the flares analyzed are mostly of M-type. The signal strengths of the coronal effect at such times were very high compared to the surface effect of the Sun. The signal level of surface effect of the Sun at the peak activity varies in amplitude from 0.06 volts to 0.1 volt while those related to solar corona vary in between 7.0 to 7.2 volts. Both the solar wind velocity and proton density are found to increase in the dates of severe bursts and there are sudden disturbances in the arrival direction of solar wind particles. Also the geomagnetic indices are enhanced at the time of solar bursts when the DST index reduces rapidly. </span></p> Debojyoti Halder Bipasa Raha Copyright (c) 2023 Debojyoti Halder, Bipasa Raha 2023-04-16 2023-04-16 21 19 24 10.24297/jap.v21i.9403 The Interactions between Universes and its Effect on the Cosmological Constant in a Multiverse with Regularized Big Bangs <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The total universe is made up of many universes like our own. These different universes can interact in many different ways. These collisions are essential for the development of each of the many universes. Because of this interaction, a process is started so that the landscape structure where the universes develop leads us to different practical values of the cosmological constant. So then, quantum tunneling plays a vital role in the rise of the new areas created by the Universal interacts. This leads to the values of their vacuum state. The interacting universes and the new areas that they create depend on just small regions of Spacetime. The quantum effects are significant only in this Spacetime. These new areas that develop help to develop different areas of a continuous process. </span></p> David McGraw Jr. Copyright (c) 2023 David McGraw Jr. 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 21 7 18 10.24297/jap.v21i.9355 Measuring one way speed of light <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In this paper, we present a method for measuring the one-way speed of light. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to solve two problems. The rst problem is how to synchronize the clocks at the source and the detector, and the second problem is to prove that the slow movement of one of the clocks does not significantly a ect the already established synchronization between the two clocks.</span></p> Milos Cojanovic Copyright (c) 2023 Milos Cojanovic 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 21 1 6 10.24297/jap.v21i.9364