JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS Khalsa Publications en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS 2347-3487 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a> All articles published in <em>Journal of Advances in Linguistics</em> are licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Four Bosons EM Gauge Invariance and EM Flux <p>Electromagnetic phenomena is based on electric charge and spin. However, Maxwell equations are just macroscopic. There is a microscopic EM phenomena to be understood. A performance originated from electric charge microscopic behavior. Thus, keeping on mind the two basic EM postulates, which are light invariance and charge conservation, Maxwell is extended to a Four Bosons Electromagnetism. It says that, the macroscopic Maxwell equations does not describe all electromagnetism. The electric charge physics has been studied microscopically through elementary particle physics. A new perception of EM phenomena emerges based on three interconnected charges {+, 0, −} under four intermediated bosons {A<sub>µ</sub>, U<sub>µ</sub>, V<sup>±</sup><sub>µ</sub> }. From Maxwell photon, EM becomes a systemic cooperation between four fields. This quadruplet originates a new electric charge physics. New features for electric charge conservation, exchange, conduction, interaction are derived. The research is to analyze the Four Bosons Electromagnetism gauge invariance and EM flux. The model is studied under U(1), SO(2)<sub>global</sub> and U(1)×SO(2)<sub>global</sub> symmetries. Two approaches are considered. Based on fields strengths and on fields. A gauge invariant quadruplet physics is obtained under free coefficients conditions. A nonlinear EM flux appears. Without requiring electric charge as source nonlinear fields work as own sources for flowing spin-1 and spin-0 waves and particles. It flows through a four potential field quadruplet, granular and collective fields strengths. A self contained EM is constituted providing a nonlinear physicality that precedes physical constants as electric charge and medium parameters. The EM meaning is enlarged and we have to understand on the physical structures generated by this antireductionist nonlinear four bosons microscopic electromagnetism. Determine the corresponding fields blocks which are real and gauge invariants. They are identified as the electromagnetic domains. The Four Bosons EM develops interdependent EM domains. Interlaced physical sectors sharing a common EM energy context. Lagrangian, equations of motion, conservation laws are expressing such domains physics. They correspond to physical sectors where each one contains its own EM energy.</p> J. Chauca R. Doria R. Soares Copyright (c) 2021 J. Chauca, R. Doria, R. Soares 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 19 281 345 10.24297/jap.v19i.9054 Common-Sense Rejected by Physicists: <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>We propose a new integration of relativity and quantum mechanics (QM). Your cell phone or smart phone is a rich source of empirical information about relativity. It tells time based on a system called Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) which assumes absolute simultaneity: all observers in all inertial frames observe the same sequence of all events. You must choose whether to trust the time on your cell phone, or trust Einstein’s incompatible ideas about a space-time continuum. As concerns QM, the existence of “weirdness” means a mistake was made in QM’s starting assumptions. This article finds and corrects that mistake and presents for the first time, a quantum world free of all weirdness. There is another half to nature, previously unrecognized. It is devoid of energy and matter, namely zero-energy Elementary Waves which move within the medium of aether. We derive the linear wave PDE’s. There is evidence that Elementary Waves are in control of nature, despite their lack of energy. The existence of UFO’s (Unidentified Flying Objects) suggests that someone has learned how to control Elementary Waves. If we could learn from the UFO’s, we might acquire a decisive advantage in our battle against climate change.</p> </div> </div> </div> Jeffrey Boyd Copyright (c) 2021 Jeffrey Boyd 2021-09-25 2021-09-25 19 233 280 10.24297/jap.v19i.9115 KEPLER – NEWTON – LEIBNIZ – HEGEL <p>Kepler’s Laws of planetary motion (following the Copernican revolution in cosmology), according to Leibniz and his follower Hegel, for the first-time in history discovered the keys to what Hegel called the absolute mechanics mediated by dialectical laws, which drives the celestial bodies, in opposition to finite mechanics in terrestrial Nature developed by mathematical and empirical sciences, but that are of very limited scope. Newton wrongly extended and imposed finite mechanics on the absolute mechanics of the cosmic bodies in the form of his Law of one-sided Universal Gravitational Attraction, by distorting and misrepresenting Kepler’s profound laws and in opposition to Leibniz’s more appropriate “Radial Planetary Orbital Equation”. The still-prevailing error by Newton (notwithstanding his well known manipulation of science for selfish ends), not only shows the limitation of mathematical idealism and prejudice driven modern cosmology in the form of Einstein’s theories of relativity; but also, have made gaining positive knowledge of the cosmos an impossibility and has impaired social/historical development of humanity by reinforcing decadent ruling ideas. Hegel’s Naturphilosophie is not only a protest against the misrepresentation of Kepler’s Laws in particular; his Enzyklopädie der Philosophischem Wissenschaften is the negation and the direct rebuttal of Newtonian physics and Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, in general. Modern natural science ignores Leibniz and Hegel at its own peril! Kepler’s phenomenological laws of planetary motion and the dialectical insights of Leibnitz and Hegel opens the way for gaining positive knowledge of the dynamics, structure and the evolution of the cosmic bodies and other cosmic phenomena; without invoking mysteries and dark/black cosmic entities, which has been the pabulum of official astrophysics and cosmology so far.</p> Abdul Malek Copyright (c) 2021 Abdul Malek 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 19 221 232 10.24297/jap.v19i.9106 Drop Size Distribution and Lightning Manifestations in AMMA-CATH Area <p>This paper analyses for the first time in tropical area, the relationship between lightning and DSD (Drop Size Distribution) parameters on rainy events that occurred during the monsoon period. The Lightning data used are collected by the LINET (Lightning Detection Network) while the DSD data were recorded by a distrometer. The correlation was computed within five circles of radius varying between to with a step of . These consecutive areas are centered on the position of the disdrometer. By taking into account only the convective spectra and remove out of the data the cases where there is rain without any lightning and vice versa, all data was computed with a time scale of one minute during each of the rainy events .The results showed that the exponential and polynomial laws fit better our data than the power and linear laws. The highest correlation coefficients are obtained within a radius of about 20 km around the distrometer location. The correlation between the parameter and is the most stable with a correlation coefficient equal to .</p> Adéchinan A. Joseph Moumouni Sounmaïla Guédjé K. François Houngninou B. Etienne Copyright (c) 2021 Adéchinan A. Joseph, Moumouni Sounmaïla, Guédjé K. François, Houngninou B. Etienne 2021-09-08 2021-09-08 19 208 220 10.24297/jap.v19i.9102 Can Naked Singularities Exist Without Violating The Laws of Black Hole Thermodynamics? <p>According to the cosmic censorship conjecture, it is impossible for nature to have a physical singularity without a horizon because if it were to arise in any formalism, for instance as an extremal black hole (Kerr or Reissner-Nordstrom) then the surface gravity κ = 0, which is a strict violation of the third law of black hole thermodynamics. In this paper we explore whether a true singularity can exist without defying this law.</p> Amal Pushp Copyright (c) 2021 Amal Pushp 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 19 204 207 10.24297/jap.v19i.9089 Magnetism: Insights from the Thomas Young Experiment <p>The principles of Thomas Young’s double slit experiment are used to find out further the nature of magnetism. This paper shows that not only can magnetism be defined as a wave but it allows us to understand the nature of all waves and concept of polarization in quantum mechanics. A wave pattern results from the interactions. It is something else before it organizes into a wave formation. In all, because of the nature of magnetic phenomenon, it must be studied at close range with the double slit experiment. This gives an incredibly unique insight. All data is available at to share.</p> Bhekuzulu Khumalo Copyright (c) 2021 Bhekuzulu Khumalo 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 19 185 203 10.24297/jap.v19i.9090 The Mystery of the Lorentz Transform: A Reconstruction and Its Implications for Einstein’s Theories of Relativity and cosmology. <p>The Lorentz Transformation (LT) is an arbitrary and poorly conceived mathematical tool designed to make Maxwell’s electromagnetism conform to Galilean relativity, which formed the basis of classical mechanics and physics. A strange combination of this transform with an axiomatic assumption by Albert Einstein that the velocity of light c is an absolute and universal constant has led to an idealist, geometrical and phenomenological view of the universe, that is at variance with objective reality. This conundrum that has lasted for more than hundred years has led to rampant mysticism and has impaired the development of positive knowledge of the universe. The present reconstruction of LT shows that the gamma term, which fueled mysticism in physics and cosmology is, on the contrary, a natural outcome of the subjective geometrical rendition of the speed of light and the idealist unification of abstract space and time into a 4D “spacetime” manifold; by Minkowski and Einstein. Only a materialist dialectical perspective of space and time can rid physics of all mysticism arising out of LT; from the quantum to the cosmic.</p> Abdul Malek Copyright (c) 2021 Abdul Malek 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 19 174 184 10.24297/jap.v19i.9079 Motion to Motion into perception <p>One of the most rewarding things in the sciences is to learn how things are put together, and how they operate. Our senses are not the only ones to come by movements in its particulars, seeing nature no less is in-and-by movement. Accordingly we come to a revelation in movements to movement, a revelation to show nature for its reality. Additionally; by illustration, the coordinates of movement are furnished to wit, magnetic, electric, light's velocity, and radial velocity.</p> Leonard Van Zanten Copyright (c) 2021 Leonard Van Zanten 2021-06-13 2021-06-13 19 156 174 10.24297/jap.v19i.9047 Stellar distance and velocity (III) <p>The use of parallax angles is one of the standard methods for determining stellar distance. The problem that arises in using this method is how to measure that angle. In order for the measurement to be correct, it is necessary for the object we are observing to be stationary in relation to the sun. This is generally not true. One way to overcome this problem is to observe the object from two different places at the same time. This would be technically possible but will probably never be realized. Another way to determine the distance is given in [1]. With certain assumptions, this is a mathematically completely correct method. After the publication of the third Gaia's catalog [2], we are now able to test the proposed method using real data. Unfortunately, for the majority of stars it is not possible to obtain the distance directly, but with the help of some additional measurements we would be able to indirectly determine the distance of such stars.</p> Miloš Čojanović Copyright (c) 2021 Miloš Čojanović 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 19 142 155 10.24297/jap.v19i.9039 Revolutionary Approach for Fusion of the Classic, Relativity and Quantum field Theories: Sayed’s Acceleration Equation and Probable Violation of E=mc2 <p>Expansion of the universe is a divine fact in the glorious Quran. The accelerated expansion of the universe is one of the physics mysteries and challenges. This article is a try to find an answer to this ambiguity. A simple fusion and merging of the Newton, Einstein and quantum field equations were carried out to clarify this topic. Innovative equations correlating the acceleration (A<sub>s</sub>), cosmological constant (Ʌ), vacuum energy density (ρ) and distance (d) was deduced. It can be concluded that Sayed`s acceleration constant (A<sub>s</sub>) is proportional to (Ʌ/ρ), (1/8mc<sup>2</sup>) and (1/πd<sup>2</sup>). The derivative equation reveals a probable violation of the mass-energy formula (E= mc<sup>2</sup>); the speed of light might be 12.5% more. This disparity may be due to antimatter contribution; neutrino-antineutrino, β<sup>-</sup>β<sup>+</sup> annihilation and/or a predicted unrecognized very light particle in the atom nucleus. The Sayed`s acceleration constant (A<sub>s</sub>) and (A<sub>s</sub>/Ʌ) ratio were calculated and found to be 6.33825x10<sup>-8 </sup>m/s<sup>2 </sup>and 5.7620475x10<sup>+44</sup> m<sup>3</sup>/s<sup>2</sup> respectively. Using Sayed`s equations, the calculated acceleration in planck scale is matched with the declared 5.56081x10<sup>51</sup> m/s<sup>2 </sup>value. The The calculated recession velocity at 1 Mpc was found to be 6.5192677 x 10<sup>8</sup> m/s .and the cosmological constant (Ʌ) is as measured;~1.1x10<sup>-52</sup> m<sup>-2</sup></p> Sayed A. El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2021 Sayed A. El-Mongy 2021-06-04 2021-06-04 19 134 141 10.24297/jap.v19i.9048 Spin-Valued Four Bosons Electrodynamics <p>Electromagnetism is based on electric charge and spin. The study here corresponds to understand on spin effects at a vectorial electrodynamics. Its scenario is a non-linear abelian electromagnetism where the electric charge is transmitted through a four bosons quadruplet, constituted by the usual photon, massive photon and charged massive photons. These four bosons intermediate the charge exchange Δ<em>Q</em> = 0, ±1.<br />The spin is introduced at first principles. A spintronics Lagrangian for four vector fields is performed. Considering that spin is a space-time physical entity derived from Lorentz Group, these vector fields are associated to Lorentz Group, as Lie algebra valued. Similarly to non-abelian gauge theories where A<sub>μ</sub>≡ A<sub>μ,<em>a</em></sub>t<sub>a</sub>, one introduces the relationship A<sub>μ</sub>≡ A<sub>μ,<em>κλ</em></sub><em>Σ<sup>κλ</sup></em> where (<em>Σ<sup>κλ</sup>)<sub>αβ </sub></em>is the Lorentz Group generator.</p> <p>Thus, based on three fundamentals which are light invariance, electric charge conservation law and vector fields Lie algebra valued through Lorentz Group generators, one derives a spin-valued four vectorial electrodynamics. It is given by the fields quadruplet A<sub>μ1 </sub>≡ {A<sub>μ</sub>, U<sub>μ</sub>, V<sub>μ</sub><sup>±</sup>} where A<sub>μ</sub> means the usual photon, U<sub>μ</sub> a massive photon and V<sub>μ</sub><sup>± </sup>massive charged photons. Two novelties appear. The first one is that, new terms are developed into usual four bosons electromagnetism. They contribute to Lagrangian, equations of motion, Noether theorem. The second one is that the equations of motion derive a renormalizable spin coupling with the electric and magnetic fields.<br />There is a spin-1 electrodynamics to be investigated. A neutral electromagnetism is mandatory to be analyzed. Something beyond dipole, quadrupole and so on. Understand the role of spin in the electrical and magnetic properties of particles. A spin vectorial expression S<sup>--&gt;</sup> is obtained. It adds EM interactions not depending on electric charge and with spin interactions through electric dipole and magnetic moments.</p> R. Doria I. Soares Copyright (c) 2021 R. Doria, I. Soares 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 19 93 133 10.24297/jap.v19i.9030 Four Bosons EM Conservation Laws <p>Electromagnetism is expressed from two basic postulates. They are light invariance<br />and charge conservation. At this work one extends the Maxwell scenario from macroscopic to microscopic electromagnetism by following the elementary particles electric charge microscopic behavior. It yields a triune electric charge interrelationship. Three charges {+, 0, −} be exchanged through a vector bosons quadruplet. It is called Four Bosons Electromagnetism. A systemic EM physics appears to be understood. Maxwell photon is not enough for describing the microscopic electric charge physics. An extension for electromagnetic energy is obtained. The fields quadruplet {A<sub>µ</sub>, U<sub>µ</sub>, V<sub>µ</sub><sup>±</sup>} are the porters of electromagnetic energy. They are the usual photon A<sub>µ</sub>, massive photon U<sub>µ</sub> and two charged photons V<sub>µ</sub><sup>±</sup>, A new understanding on EM phenomena has to be considered. A set determinism based on granular and collective fields is developed. A space-time evolution associated to a whole.<br />Conservation laws are studied. The EM phenomena is enlarged to three charges interchanges to {+, 0, −}. Two novelties appear. New features on nonlinear fields acting as own sources and on electric charge physics. Properties as conservation, conduction, transmission, interaction are extended to a systemic electromagnetism. A whole conservation law for electric charge emerges from three charges interwoven. Electric charge has a systemic behavior. Although there is no Coulomb law for zero electric charge, the Four Bosons Electromagnetism contains an EM energy which provides a neutral electromagnetism. Particles with zero charge {A<sub>µ</sub>, U<sub>µ</sub>} are carrying EM energy.</p> <p>Another consideration is on EM energy being transported by four nonlinear fields. A new physicality appears. The abelian nonlinearity generates fields charges. Fields are working as own sources through mass terms, trilinear and quadrilinear interactions, spin couplings. Consequently the photon is more than being a consequence from electric charge oscillations. It is able to generate its own charge. Introduce the meaning of photonics.<br />Thus, electric charge is no more the isolate electromagnetic source. There are another conservation laws. Fields sources appear through corresponding equations of motion, Bianchi identities, energy-momentum, Noether laws and angular momentum conservation laws. They move EM to a fields charges dependence. Together with electric charge they carry<br />the electromagnetic flux. Supporting the Ahranov-Bohm experiment of potential fields as primitive entities.</p> R. M. Doria I. Soares Copyright (c) 2021 R. M. Doria, I. Soares 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 19 40 92 10.24297/jap.v19i.9024 Nuclear Power Plants Pre-operational Radiological Monitoring Mapping for the Coastal Boarders and Islands of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) <p>In the light of the peaceful nuclear power plants (NPPs) project of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the operation license has been issued and the first unit is being in commercial operation. This work deals mainly with radiological surveillance of the coastal boarder and some Islands of UAE as a baseline reference natural and artificial radioactivity mapping. Ultra-sensitive hyper pure Germanium (HpGe) detector was used to carry out the non-destructive gamma measurements. The area of study was divided into; Abu Dhabi region, northern emirates and islands. About 85 soils, shore sediment and water samples were collected based on the scientific sampling mechanism. The samples were analyzed for X-ray diffraction mineralogy (XRD). The radioactivity in Bq/kg of the natural <sup>238</sup>U(<sup>226</sup>Ra), <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K were calculated for all the collected samples. The artificial <sup>137</sup>Cs was also observed in very low activity. The hazard indices were also calculated and found to be less than the recommended international and regional limits. The correlations between the measured radioisotopes were also depicted. The results were compared, presented and given in 3D histograms.</p> Ali S. Almeqbali George Karani Sayed A El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2021 Ali S. Almeqbali, George Karani, Sayed A El-Mongy 2021-04-08 2021-04-08 19 31 39 10.24297/jap.v19i.8991 High-symmetry approximations of AX3 crystal structures retrieved with the method of hierarchical trees <p>The hierarchical trees have been constructed for the AX<sub>3</sub> crystal family, significant steps of this construction being explained in detail. It has made possible to establish the archetypes of the crystal structures that are high-symmetry approximations for subfamilies of the crystals under consideration.</p> Panfilov A. G Vaganov S. A. Copyright (c) 2021 Panfilov A. G, Vaganov S. A. 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 19 23 30 10.24297/jap.v19i.8982 Derivation of general Doppler effect equations (II) Milos Cojanovic <p>In the manuscript [1] we derived the general Doppler effect equations. In order to prove the correctness of the equations, it remains to define an adequate coordinate system. We have argued that such a coordinate system cannot be chosen arbitrarily but is determined by the direction between the receiver at the time when the signal is received and the sender at the time when the signal is emitted. In this manuscript, several experiments have been<br />proposed to prove the existence of such a coordinate system. In addition, we will determine the velocities at which the sender and receiver of the signal move and the distance between them.</p> Miloš Čojanović Copyright (c) 2021 Miloš Čojanović 2021-02-03 2021-02-03 19 13 22 10.24297/jap.v19i.8947 Proposed Innovative Correlations for some Nuclear and Radiological Fields using Theorem of S. El-Mongy <p>Thinking and thought are divine urge in the Great Quran. The published S. El-Mongy theorem (L= eπrs<sup>A</sup>) correlates eπ with radius r of circular and spherical geometries by a factor s<sup>A</sup> (θ/10ϕ) to be used for calculations of arc length and astronomical distance. In this article, Sayed’s formula was used to produce correlations with the well-established laws and formulas of different nuclear and radiological fields. The formula was directed to be correlated with half-life time, activity, flux, reaction rate, reactor power, mean free path, photon fluence rate, radiation dose rate and half value thickness equations. It was also oriented to calculate fuel rods circumstances of different reactor types; PWR, BWR, VVER1200 and Candu-6. The produced correlations of eπ and s<sup>A </sup>with the above mentioned topics are given with simplified reduced forms, limitation and some comparative calculations between old and the proposed innovative formulas. New formulas for sphere volume and surface area and cylinder are also given based on eπ term.</p> Sayed El-Mongy Copyright (c) 2021 Sayed El-Mongy 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 19 6 12 10.24297/jap.v19i.8946 Numerical Differentiation and Integration <p>There are several reasons why numerical differentiation and integration are used. The function that integrates <em>f (x)</em> can be known only in certain places, which is done by taking a sample. Some supercomputers and other computer applications sometimes need numerical integration for this very reason. The formula for the function to be integrated may be known, but it may be difficult or impossible to find the antiderivation that is an elementary function. One example is the function <em>f (x)</em> = exp <em>(−x<sup>2</sup>),</em> an antiderivation that cannot be written in elementary form. It is possible to find antiderivation symbolically, but it is much easier to find a numerical approximation than to calculate antiderivation (anti-derivative). This can be used if antiderivation is given as an unlimited array of products, or if the budget would require special features that are not available to computers.</p> Dragan Obradovic Lakshmi Narayan Mishra Vishnu Narayan Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Dragan Obradovic, Lakshmi Narayan Mishra, Vishnu Narayan Mishra 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 19 1 5 10.24297/jap.v19i.8938