https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/issue/feedJOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS2024-09-04T07:18:54+00:00Editorial Officeeditor@rajpub.comOpen Journal Systemshttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9664Celestial Mechanics: The Non-Stability of The Newtonian Model2024-09-04T07:18:54+00:00Gabriel Barcelógestor@advanceddynamics.net<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Multiple researchers and the three-body problem highlight a potential instability in the Classic model of the Solar System, indicating a possible fundamental instability in the system's dynamics.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Therefore, we consider that the Classical model does not reflect reality, and we propose an alternative model that we call: </span><strong>Theory of Dynamic Interactions</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">, providing a brief exposition of the studies carried out by Advanced Dynamics, until defining a Rotational Dynamics of Interactions, applicable to bodies subjected to multiple pairs of successive non-coaxial forces.</span></p>2024-09-24T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Gabriel Barcelóhttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9662Prototyping disruptive self-sufficiency power machines composed by cascaded power units based on thermo-hydraulic actuators2024-09-02T10:57:49+00:00Ramon Ferreiro Garciaramon.ferreiro@udc.es<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research focuses on developing a prototype for a disruptive Self-Sustaining Power Machine (SSPM) that consists of cascaded power units (PUs). Each PU integrates thermo-mechanical and thermo-hydraulic actuators to drive hydraulic pumps connected to generators. The prototype's design leverages two thermal cycle types, sVsVs and VsVs, which enable self-sustaining operations by employing several strategic capabilities that challenge the limitations of second-kind perpetual motion machines (PMMs). Therefore, key capabilities include:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">1- Performing useful mechanical work through the expansion and contraction of the Thermal Working Fluid (TWF) by adding and removing heat.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">2- Utilizing recovered heat through potential superposition techniques, thereby upgrading the heat to a higher grade, which enhances heat recovery strategies.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">3- Designing an efficient energy transfer chain from thermal to electrical energy via thermo-mechanical or thermo-hydraulic actuators, a hydraulic energy drive system, and conversion from hydraulic to electrical energy.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">4- Configuring the system to achieve more useful work than the heat added to the initial PU downstream.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Two main prototype types are proposed to demonstrate these proposed capabilities:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">1- Continuous motion using the sVsVs thermal cycle, with volumetric reservoirs for thermal working fluids (TWF) located outside the thermo-mechanical or thermo-hydraulic actuators.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">2- Discontinuous motion using the VsVs thermal cycle, with volumetric reservoirs for TWF located inside the active volume of the thermo-mechanical or thermo-hydraulic actuators.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The prototypes were evaluated through case studies using air and helium as real TWFs. Results indicate that the SSPM composed of five cascaded PUs operating on an sVsVs cycle achieved a global efficiency of 149.6% (SSI of 49.6%) with helium and 126% (SSI of 26%) with air. In contrast, the VsVs cycle yielded a global efficiency of 183% (SSI of 83%) with helium and 133% (SSI of 33%) with air</span></p>2024-09-19T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Ramon Ferreiro Garciahttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9648Prototyping Self-Sustaining Power Machines with Cascaded Power Units Composed by Pulse Gas Turbines2024-07-10T09:49:03+00:00Ramon Ferreiro Garciaramon.ferreiro@udc.es<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research work aims at designing a prototype of a disruptive Self-Sustaining Power Machine (SSPM) composed of cascaded power units (PUs). Each PU consists of a Pulse Gas Turbine (PGT). The prototyping design task involves a singular thermal cycle (sVsVs) associated to each PU, characterized by doing work by: of a Thermal Working Fluid (TWF) due to previous heat addition, contraction of a TWF previously cooled by heat extraction and, upgrading recovered heat by increasing thermal potential by heat superposition techniques, and efficiexpansion ent use of the heat recovered from each upstream PU to feed the first PU downstream.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The fact of achieving useful mechanical work with the above-mentioned procedures by adding only heat to produce expansion work, undergoes an excess of useful mechanical work greater than the amount of added heat, which gives rise to a SSPM enabled to defy Perpetual Motion Machines (PMM) of second kind.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In the proposed configuration, the heat released from each PU due to the cooling of the TWF is efficiently recovered and reused in the first PU in the cascade. Results have been verified through two case studies carried out on a SSPM simulated prototype, being conducted using air and helium as real gases. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">According to the results, the SSPM composed by a group of cascaded PUs, each exhibiting an average efficiency of less than 35% with air as TWF, can approach a SSI of 22% while the SSPM composed by a group of cascaded PUs, each exhibiting an average efficiency of less than 57% with helium as TWF, can approach a SSI of 84 %. Consequently, the results achieved from the case studies of the SSPM indicate that it is possible to overcome second kind PMMs.</span></p>2024-08-03T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Ramon Ferreiro Garciahttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9642New Physics II – Quantum-Dialectical Derivation of New Mass-Energy Relation Invalidates Einstein’s Famous Equation E = mc2 2024-06-10T02:56:35+00:00Abdul Malekabdulmalek@qc.aibn.com<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The notion that human scale inertial mass and the various forms of tangible energy, like kinetic, heat, light, chemical, gravity, etc., have some kind of equivalence; existed since the time of Isaac Newton. Historically, based purely on epistemological and phenomenological perspective, there has been speculative, theoretical, and experimental attempts based on electrostatic, electrodynamic and relativistic, etc., consideration to deduce a quantitative relation between mass and energy. By the turn of 20</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">th</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> century, a vastly oversimplified and wrongly derived relation </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Δ</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">E = </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Δ</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">mc</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, where E is energy, m inertial mass, and c the velocity of light; has been unjustly attributed to Albert Einstein. This relation presumed to be universally valid for all forms of inertial mass and energy, but without valid evidence, along with the physically and mathematically invalid arbitrary derivation by Einstein; have enjoyed acceptance and is veneration by official science for more than hundred years and still continue. Einstein’s false mass-energy formulation, seems to be due to the unfortunate combination of a number of factor: 1) epistemological misunderstanding; 2) the ill effects of the use of unscientific axiomatic truth of the universal constancy of the (zero-mass) light velocity c, that has given rise to unphysical objects, concepts and notions of reality; 3) workings of (even if unended) mathematical tricks; and 4) most of all, as implied in the mass-energy equation, the wrong conception that the kinetic motion of any object leads to the increase of its inertial mass by the Lorentz gamma factor. All these combined in a negative way to result in the irrational replacement of the velocity v of classical kinetic energy equation with relativistic c. The falsity of the claim of relativistic mass-energy relation would be clear from recent reports that one can derive Einstein’s mass-energy equation from Newtonian mechanics alone, simply by using the wrong concept of relativistic mass increase, instead of a constant inertial mass of classical mechanics. All the concerns about Einstein’s formulation of the mass-energy relation, raise serious doubt about its scientific validity. A more comprehensive ontological approach based on an understanding of the origin of matter and motion in their elementary form, seems to be imperative, to settle the issue of mass-energy relation. Hegel’s philosophy of space and time and his dialectical ontology of the origin of matter and motion, now realized through quantum-dialectics, offers such a paradigm for a scientific and rational derivation of the mass-energy relation. </span></p>2024-06-22T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Abdul Malekhttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9633Prototyping a Disruptive Self-Sustaining Power Plant enabled to overcome Perpetual Motion Machines2024-05-16T15:01:04+00:00Ramon Ferreiro Garciaramon.ferreiro@udc.es<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research discusses a strategic methodology for implementing a disruptive Self-Sustaining Power Plant (SSPP) characterized by the cascading coupling of a group of Power Units (PUs). In this configuration, the heat released from each PU due to the cooling of the thermal working fluid (TWF) is efficiently recovered and reused as supply heat for the first PU in the cascade. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Two case studies on the SSPP have been conducted using air and helium as TWFs. The first deals with PUs coupled in cascade operating with closed processes-based Vsp thermal cycles, while the second involves PUs coupled in cascade operating with closed processes-based VsVs thermal cycles. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Following the corresponding analysis of both case studies, significant results were obtained. These results, derived from this preliminary design study, will be applied to the implementation of the disruptive SSPP prototype operating with real gases as working fluids. This allows for a precise and clear understanding of the issue of generating useful work through expansion, contraction, or both. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Moreover, according to the results, the SSPP composed by a group of power units where the efficiency of each power unit operating with air as working fluid only approaches a value of the efficiency of 22%, can exceed 100% of the nominal design power under certain conditions, which supposes a flagrant violation of the principle of conservation of energy due to the fact that such disruptive Self-Sustaining Power Plant is enabled to overcome a Perpetual Motion Machine of second kind.</span></p>2024-06-03T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Ramon Ferreiro Garciahttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9608A mathematical expression to predict a laser pulse shape2024-04-15T08:50:17+00:00M. K. Adawiadawish1@hotmail.comS. A. Shalabyadawish1@hotmail.comS. S. Mostafaadawish1@hotmail.comS. A. Antaradawish1@hotmail.com<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">A mathematical expression to predict the shape of a laser pulse is obtained. It is compatible with an experimental one published elsewhere. Comparative computations with other published trials that follow the same trend are made. As a result, our trial is recommended for forthcoming theoretical studies to be published in the field of pulsed laser heating.</span></p>2024-05-20T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 M. K. Adawi, S. A. Shalaby, S. S. Mostafa, S. A. Antarhttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9597Gauge Abelian Models for Symetry Objects2024-02-23T15:43:28+00:00Renato M. Doriarenatomdoria@gmail.comSamuel D. S. Freitassamuelfisica.musica.neuro@gmail.com<p>This work explores gauge symmetry for the so-called symmetry object. The investigation associates gauge symmetry to a collection of fields. Different fields are boxed inside of a symmetry object as a matrix. A systemic gauge symmetry is proposed. It introduces a new procedure where gauge symmetry should not be restricted to Yang-Mills procedure. Two fields arrangements are taken. The N-matter fields and M- mediators fields. These two symmetry objects are connected through an abelian gauge symmetry. The corresponding generator becomes a matricial charge Q rotating as U = eiQα where α means the abelian gauge parameter. It yields a collective gauge transformation. Thus, instead of considering the Yang-Mills canonical procedure where the number of gauge fields is equal to the number of gauge generators, this work develops an abelian gauge theory for symmetry objects. The cases where Q is 2x2 and 3x3 matrices are studied. By consequence, instead of developing gauge models where three and eight mediators should be associated to SU(2) and SU(3) groups, are develops their behaviors in terms M an abelian group.</p>2024-05-20T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Renato M. Doria, Samuel d. S. Freitashttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9604Thermo-Mechanical Energy2024-03-20T11:09:34+00:00 A.T. CANERO armandotcanero@yahoo.com.arG. G. CANEROarmandotcanero@yahoo.com.ar<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Thermodynamics and mechanics are two highly developed disciplines, which have remained very independent. Some studies link them but they are restricted to very limited aspects, as if trying to maintain the independence between them. In Mechanics, energy is considered a single uniform property represented by a scalar magnitude has limited its study. On the contrary, Thermodynamics analyzes each magnitude separately and links them with already different definitions beforehand, this allows these to be given diverse properties often related to the reference systems and subsequently linked to each other a posteriori without losing their particularities. This can be seen in the definition of internal energy and kinetic energy of the volume of gases; In Mechanics, this separation is not made and therefore it is restricted to considering energy as a scalar. This study defines why energy should be subdivided, what advantage comes from analyzing it in this way, what cases it applies to, what answers are obtained that were not achievable before, and it eliminates contradictions that are generated if it is considered only a scalar. This reasoning also opens the way to the introduction of the concept of entropy in mechanics (more precisely in dynamics), which provides answers to the temporal direction of events and, in this way, the false idea of temporal symmetry in the equations is eliminated and it allows us to see that it is presented this way intentionally as a way to simplify problem-solving.</span></p>2024-04-23T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 A.T. CANERO and G. G. Canerohttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9605Sayed`s Theory of Dark Energy and Dark Matter Forces Nature 2024-03-20T11:02:38+00:00Sayed A. El-Mongysayedelmongy@hotmail.com<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Allah (God) is the Creator of the wonderful accelerated expansion of universe. The</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">nature</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">of</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Dark energy (DE) and matter (DM) is enigmatic mystery of the modern astrophysics. This article is a theory establishes the nature and laws of DE and DM forces. They are among the forces controlling the universe harmony and homogeneity. The derived equations were based on the published Sayed quantum gravity force formula. The </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Sayed`s Dark energy force (SDEF)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> formulas indicate that they are function in quantum gravity force (F</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">QG</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">), energy density(ρ), cosmological (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ʌ)</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">, Hubble (H), and Planck (h) constants</span><strong>.</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The formulas were verified and validated. For Planck and cosmos scales, the Dark energy force, energy density, and </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ʌ</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> were calculated and found to be 2.538x10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">84</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> N, 10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-26</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Kg/m</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3, </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">and</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-52 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">m</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-2 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">respectively. These values are in high concordance with the declared values. The results obtained show that the DE force represents more than ¾ of the universe forces as the observations. The disputed Hubble constant was also calculated and found to be in the range; ~2.2 x10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-18</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> s</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-1</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">. It can also be stated and emphasized that the light speed violation (E</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">≠</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">mc</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">) is a must to solve the DE nature and many other universe mysteries.</span></p>2024-04-12T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Sayed A. El-Mongyhttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9595Primordial Black Holes And How Strings Get Created Into Matter In The Early Universe2024-02-21T19:21:30+00:00David McGraw Jr.dmcgraw1@mcneese.edu<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The C-Neutralino is the major particle that drives the beginning of our universe. It decays into other particles including protons and electrons. Primordial Black Holes are also important in the development of our universe. They connect astrophysical constraints on sources of cosmic rays. Primordial Black Holes play a role in element abundance and the spectrum of the CMB. They are particle and matter creators. Primordial Black Holes can be a source of any species of particles in our space-time. In the end, they can shed new light on problems in Cosmology. Primordial Black Holes are the solution to inhomogeneous primordial structures in the early universe. C-Neutralinos are the particle that contributes to creation and also contribute to dark matter in our universe. It is the major source of dark matter in our universe. In the early universe, the cosmological principle did not exist. The inhomogeneous universe we see today evolved after about 1 billion years after the creation of our universe. </span></p>2024-03-23T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 David McGraw Jr.https://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9596Design study of a disruptive self-powered power plant prototype2024-02-23T11:49:28+00:00Ramon Ferreiro Garciaramon.ferreiro@udc.es<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research work discusses a preliminary disruptive prototype design of a self-powered thermal power plant doing work by strictly isothermal closed processes using forced convection heat transfer both for adding and extracting heat. It includes useful work by expansion and vacuum-based contraction due to adding heat to and extracting heat from a working fluid. A cycle analysis considering useful work due to vacuum-based contraction is the core of the problem-solving methodology. The findings will be applied to the prototyping implementation task, which includes the cascade and series of cascade coupling of several regenerative power units. The empirical results of the case studies provide the data needed to carry out a prototyping task considering the results of real cases subjected to realistic irreversibilities and heat recovery factors that make the self-feeding power plant an interesting design option. This extraordinary result confirms the technical viability of real machines that exhibit the ability to provide more energy than they use, that is, second-class perpetual motion machines</span></p>2024-03-16T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Ramon Ferreiro Garciahttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9594New Physics – The Negation of Einstein’s Theories of Relativity2024-02-16T10:12:53+00:00Abdul Malekabdulmalek@qc.aibn.com<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">From ontological considerations alone, a new revolutionary quantum dynamical-materialist dialectical (Quantum Dialectics or QD) perspective of space-time-matter-motion achieves a new quantitative mass-energy-velocity relation for any ponderable fundamental particles. This new relation, based on the quantum uncertainty principle, gives the mass m of any free fundamental particle at its origin, in terms of the inverse cube of its velocity v. This quantitative relation is different and is a negation of the one derived from mechanical-metaphysical (Classical Mechanics or CM) approach since Isaac Newton and its relativistic post-quantum formulation of Albert Einstein. This new mass-energy-velocity relation is in conformity with known knowledge and is appropriately substantiated by the recent reports that “high-energy photons of gamma radiation from a distant galaxy arrived at Earth four minutes after lower-energy photons, although they were apparently emitted at the same time”; and another saying that “the time delays of gamma-ray photons are inversely proportional to their energy”. These findings would contradict Einstein's theory of relativity, which says that all photons (particles of light) must move at the same speed c. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">QD considers matter-antimatter particle pairs in their elementary virtual forms and kinetic motion as an eternal quantum dynamical process of existence and non-existence (Being-Nothing) arising from abstract space and abstract time in a contradiction to each other. The virtual particles can transition to real particles through quantum tunnelling or when equivalent energy becomes available. Any existence in this view is a contradiction; vulnerable to change, motion, evolution, development etc. The aggregation of the elementary particles and their motions mediated by chance and necessity, give rise to the phenomenology of this infinite, eternal and ever-changing universe. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The CM approach on the contrary is based on epistemology and considers that matter (ordinary + light) and motion have an esoteric origin from the mystery of the single act of creation by God; of a finite universe in the finite past; where the premise of conservation laws and “ex nihilo nihil fit” prevail. In its relativistic version, this approach makes a fundamental difference between ponderable matter and light and in fact question the existence of particulate matter. Two axiomatic assumptions, one by Newton of one-sided universal gravitational attraction and the other by Einstein that the velocity of light c is an absolute and universal constant has brought in unphysical objects and phenomena into scientific discourse leading to century-long confusion and scholastic debates among the physicists; with no end in sight! </span></p>2024-03-07T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Abdul Malekhttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9587Efficient disruptive power plant-based heat engines doing work by means of strictly isothermal closed processes2024-01-29T10:52:59+00:00Ramon Ferreiro Garciaramon.ferreiro@udc.es<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research discusses a methodology to integrate strictly isothermal closed processes within thermal cycles characterized by working through contraction processes by extracting heat at free cost. An analysis of a preliminary design study of an engine and cycle doing useful work by expansion and contraction is carried out, whereby the energy balance equations are adjusted when considering contraction work as the core of the problem-solving strategy. The results of the preliminary design study will be applied to the implementation of the disruptive power unit prototype operating with real gasses as working fluids, which allows a precise and clear understanding of the issue of generating useful work through the expansion, contraction, and regeneration of heat by applying advanced heat recovery techniques to convert heat into useful work, thus achieving efficient power units that exhibit the ability to exceed 100% of added thermal energy due to the contribution of the contraction-based work performed at free cost..</span></p>2024-02-24T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 R. Ferreirohttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9573The Effect of the Earth’s Rotation and Gravity on the Speed of Light2024-01-01T01:25:07+00:00Miloš Čojanovićmcojanovic@yahoo.com<p>Based on the results of the M ichelson ̆Morley experiment [1] and the direct measurement of the speed of light in two directions, we can conclude that the movement of the Earth in relation to the Sun and the movement of the solar system in relation to the center of the galaxy do not affect the measurement of the speed of light in the vicinity of the Earth. But on the other hand, based on results of the M ichelson ̆Morley experiment and the direct measurement of the speed of light in two directions we cannot know with certainty whether the Earth’s rotation around its axis affects the measurement of the speed of light in one direction. Thus, instead of the motion by which the Earth’s surface moves in relation to the Sun, we will observe the angular motion by which the Earth rotates on its axis relative to distant stars. Instead of measuring the speed of light in two directions, we will measure the speed of light in one</p>2024-01-27T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 Miloš Čojanovićhttps://rajpub.com/index.php/jap/article/view/9561Laser heating of a finite silver sulfide slab (Ag2S). An elegant analytical solution using Laplace integral transform method.2023-12-09T12:08:58+00:00M.K.El Adawiadawish1@hotmail.comS.A. Shalabyadawish1@hotmail.com S.S. Mostafaadawish1@hotmail.comS.A. Antaradawish1@hotmail.com<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The problem of heating a finite silver sulfide slab with cw laser is studied using Laplace integral transform technique. For a certain laser power irradiance an expression for the temperature profile within the slab is obtained. The temperature variations with time for the front and rear surfaces are also obtained. The critical time required to initiate melting can thus be computed. Computations for an illustrative example are given. The obtained results reveal.</span></p>2024-01-27T00:00:00+00:00Copyright (c) 2024 M.K.El Adawi, S.A. Shalaby, S.S. Mostafa, S.A. Antar