6+1 Writing Traits in a Matriculation ESL classroom


  • Premaraj GURUSAMY Kolej Matrikulasi Kejuruteraan Johor/UTM, Malaysia
  • Ramesh Sathappan Department of Languages, Temenggong Ibrahim Teacher Education Institute, Malaysia,




writing proficiency, MUET, Matriculation college, 6 1 writing traits


The purpose of this study is to examine the use of the 6+1 Writing Traits approach in improving teaching and learning of writing in a Matriculation ESL classroom. This is due to the fact writing instruction has become a field of increasing interest at higher learning institutions and at pre- university levels in recent years. As a result of this interest, there have been many innovations to the teaching of writing in the evolution of language teaching and these have led to several significant shifts on how writing is taught in the ESL classrooms. The 6+1 writing traits is one such innovation. Writing traits such as Ideas, Organization, Convention, Sentence Fluency, Word Choice and Voice are important in any writing attempted by learners. Therefore, it is vital that Matriculation learners are exposed to the 6+1 writing traits in order to be able to produce a comprehensive essay that meets the requirements of the Malaysian University English Test examination. This proposed research will be a qualitative research. Pre-test, lessons plans, classroom observations, questionnaire and post-test will be used to elicit data in support of this research. Learners will learn to review peer essays thus enhancing their writing proficiency. This research will also look into the challenges faced by learners and lecturers in the course of implementing the 6+1 writing traits in the classroom.


Download data is not yet available.


Applebee, A. (1984). Writing and reasoning. Review of Educational Research, 54 (41, 577-586.

Atwell, N (1987). In The Middle: Reading, Writing and Learning with Adolescents. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Azar, M. (1999). Argumentative text as rhetoricalstructure: An application of rhetorical structure theory. Argumentation,13(1), 97-114.

Biggs, J. (2001). The reflective institution: Assuring and enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. Higher Education, 41(3), 221-238. doi: 10.1023/a:1004181331049.

Black, P. J., &Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1), 5-31.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy – 2nd Edition. New York: Longman.

Culham, R. (2003, October). 6+1 traits for revision. Scholastic Instructor, 113, 14-15.

Culham, R. (2011). Reading with a writer’s eye. In T. Rasinski (Ed.), Rebuilding the foundation: Effective reading instruction for the 21st century(pp. 245–270). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

Diederich, P.B. 1974. Measuring Growth in English. Urbana, Ill.: National Council of Teachers of English.

Diyanah, A. (2010, 24 July). Kuasai Bahasa Inggeris, BeritaHarian Online. Retrieved from http://www.bharian.com.my/bharian/articles/ KuasaibahasaInggeris/Article/print_htm.

Ebel, R. L. (1980). Evaluation of students: implications for effective teaching. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 2(1), 47-51. doi: 10.3102/01623737002001047.

Elbow, P. (1973). Writing without teachers.New York: Oxford University Press.

Emig, Janet. The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders. NCTE Research Report No. 13. Urbana, Ill.: National Council of Teachers of English, 1971. ------. "Non-Magical Thinking: Presenting Writing Developmentally in the Schools" in Writing: The Nature, Development and Teaching of Written Communication. Vol. 1. 1981.

Fisher, R., Myhill, D., & Twist, L. (2011).Evaluation of every child a writer report 2: Teaching andwriting in ECaW classes.University of Exeter and National Foundation for Educational Research.

Flower, L. & Hayes, J. 1981. A cognitive process theory of writing. College composition and communication, 32: 365-87.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feed¬back. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81–112.

Kapka, D., &Oberman, D. A. (2001, 4 1). Improving Student Writing Skills through theModeling of the Writing Process.Retrieved from ERIC Clearinghouse: http://www.eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED453536

Keh, C. (1990). Feedback in the Writing Process: a Model and Methods forImplementation. English Language Teaching Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 294-304.

Kellogg, R.T. (2008). Training Writing Skills. A cognitive developmental perspective: Jouranl of Writing Research, 1(1), 1-26.

Kim, Y. S., Al Otaiba, S., Sidler, J. F., &Gruelich, L. (2013). Language, literacy, attentional behaviors,and instructional quality predictors of written composition for first graders.Early ChildhoodResearch Quarterly, 28(3), 461–469.

Kozlow, M., and Bellamy, P. (2004). Experimental study on the impact of the 6+1 Trait® writing model on student achievement in writing. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved July 27, 2010, from http://educationnorthwest.org/webfm_send/134.

Lehr, F. (1995). Revision in the writing process. ERİC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication.Bloomington İN: (ERİC ED379664)

Macrorie, K. (1985). Telling writing (4th ed.).Portsmouth, NH: Boynton Cook.

Mann, W. C., & Thompson, S. (1987). Rhetorical structure theory: Description and constructions of text structures. In G. Kempen (Ed.), Natural language generation: New results in artificial intelligence, psychology and linguistics (pp. 85-96). Herndon, VA: MartinusNijhoff.

Marchisan, M. L., Alber, S. R. (2001). The write way: Tips for teaching the writing process to resistant writers. Intervention in School & Clinic, 3(36), 154- 162

Ministry of Education, M. (2001). Education development plan for Malaysia 2001-2010: Executive Summary. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysia Ministry of Education Retrieved from http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/format_liste_en.php?Chp2=Malaysia.

MOHE. (2007a). Mission & Vision. Retrieved from http://www.mohe.gov.my/sub1.php?navcode=NAV001&subcode=SUB00 6&lang=ENG.

Purves, A. 1988. Writing across languages and culture. Newbury Park, Ca: Sage.

Spandel, V. (2005). The nine rights of every writer: A guide for teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinneman.

Tompkins, G. E. (2004). Teaching writing: balancing product and process.(4. baski). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Tribble, C, (1996). Writing, New York, Oxford University Press.

Ume, T. A., &Nworgu, B. G. (1997). Evaluation of teaching and learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 72, 63-70. doi: 10.1002/tl.7207.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1981a). The development of higher forms of attentionin childhood. In J. V Wertsch (Ed.), The concept of activity in Sovietpsychology (pp. 189-240). Armonk, NY: Sharpe.

Wagner, R. K., Puranik, C. S., Foorman, B., Foster, E., Wilson, L. G., Tschinkel, E., & Kantor, P. T.(2011). Modeling the development of written language.Reading and Writing, 24(2), 203–220

Wertsch J. (1991). Voices of the mind: A Sociocultural approach to mediated action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Yasin, A. Y. M., Shaufil, W. M. H. W. M., Mukhtar, A. M., Ghani, N. I. A., & Rashid, F. (2010). The English proficiency of civil engineering students at a Malaysian polytechnic. Asian Social Science, 6(6), 161-170.

Zamel, Vivian. "The Composing Processes of AdvancedESL Students: Six Case Studies.' TESOL Quarterly17 (1983).




How to Cite

GURUSAMY, P. ., & Sathappan, R. (2022). 6+1 Writing Traits in a Matriculation ESL classroom. JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH, 18, 61–66. https://doi.org/10.24297/jssr.v18i.9304