JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr KHALSA PUBLICATIONS en-US JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH 2321-1091 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a> All articles published in <em>Journal of Advances in Linguistics</em> are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> The Mediating Effect on Self-Efficacy in The Relationship Between Gender Identity and Leadership Style https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8554 <p>According to role congruence theory (Eagly &amp; Karau, 2002), it is not the evaluative content of the stereotype of women but its mismatch with leadership roles that underlies women discrimination with regards to leadership roles. The current study sought to establish whetherleader’s gender identity or the extent to which the leader possesses traits associated with traditional gender stereotypes may explain leadership styles.Using a sample of 163 managers working within bank and personal care services, results show that among both male and female leaders, masculine gender identity was more strongly related to group-focused transformational leadership (charisma, inspirational motivation and idealized influence), transformational intellectual stimulation leadership and to transactional leadership styles. Furthermore, the results show that masculine leadership self-efficacy mediates the relationship between gender identity and leadership styles.&nbsp; Results are discussed in relation to previous research.</p> Sabine Pohl Pascale Desrumaux Anne-Marie Vonthron Copyright (c) 2020 Sabine Sabine Pohl, Pascale Desrumaux, Anne-Marie Vonthron 2020-01-14 2020-01-14 15 1 10 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8554 A Case Study in Curriculum Change on Practicum in A Tesl Programme in Two Malaysian Institutions of Higher Learning https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8596 <p>This study attempts to explain the importance of curriculum change in Higher Learning Institutions. It’s objectives were to identify the similarities and differences between two institutions of Higher Learning in terms of curriculum structure, teaching process and teachers’ digital skills and also examine whether the curriculum change in their respective training programmes produce better quality teachers in Malaysian schools. A qualitative research incorporating questionnaire, document analysis and interviews was conducted to obtain the results.. The data obtained from the study participants were analyzed qualitatively. The findings of the study reveal that (i) both the Higher Learning Institutions have similarities in prioratizing subject matter, professional standards and practical training (ii) Both of them share the same view that curriculum change has produced better quality teachers. The study concludes by predicting there will be more innovative changes in curriculum designing in the Higher Learning Institutions in future. However, it has recommended more classroom activities for students.</p> Ramesh Sathappan Premaraj Gurusamy Copyright (c) 2020 Ramesh Sathappan, Premaraj Gurusamy 2020-01-14 2020-01-14 15 11 26 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8596 Reconstruction of Roles and Responsibilities of The Board of Directors in Share Repurchase in Limited Liability Company Based on Fair Values https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8527 <p>This research aims to find out the roles and responsibilities of the board of directors in repurchasing shares in limited companies that have not been fair and to reconstruct the roles and responsibilities of the board of directors in repurchasing shares in limited companies based on fair values. This research is a sociolegal research, that is, an alternative approach that tests doctrinal studies of law. The word 'socio' in sociolegal represents the correlation between the context in which the law is located (an interface with a context within which law exists). It was found that the Board of Directors is jointly and severally liable for losses suffered by shareholders in good faith, arising from repurchases that are null and void due to the law. This does not provide fair/balanced legal protection for the parties. The fair values in buying shares are to provide balanced and proportional legal protection. Reconstruction of the roles and responsibilities of the Board of Directors in the repurchase of shares in a limited company based on fair values by carrying out reconstruction of Article 37 paragraph (3) and (5) of Law Number 40 Year 2007 concerning Limited Liability Companies.</p> Anis Mashdurohatun Lenny Mutiara Ambarita Gunarto Copyright (c) 2020 Anis Mashdurohatun, Lenny Mutiara Ambarita , Gunarto 2020-01-25 2020-01-25 15 27 33 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8527 Insignificant Relationship Between Speaking Self-Efficacy and Language Learning Anxiety of English Department Students at The University of Riau, Indonesia https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8643 <p>Many studies have delved into the connection between self-efficacy and language anxiety. However, the findings are somewhat inconsistent: self-efficacy has either positive, negative or no relationship at all with language anxiety. Therefore, this research aims to examine the relationship between students’ self-efficacy and language anxiety in learning speaking in EFL classroom. The subjects of this study were second-year English Department students at the University of Riau, Indonesia taking Speaking subject (N = 40). Data on their self-efficacy and language anxiety were collected through the questionnaire. The data analysis results reveal that the students have very good self-efficacy in speaking. They also show a moderate level of anxiety. However, statistical analysis reveals that there is no relationship between the two variables. Despite the limited number of participant, this finding is expected to shed a light on the contribution of self-efficacy and anxiety on learning speaking in EFL context. This finding suggests that although the self-efficacy and anxiety levels were similar with previous studies, there might be different patterns of relationship between these variables depending on the context. This implies that teachers should be aware of this before taking any measure to improve students speaking skills.</p> Hadriana Copyright (c) 2020 Hadriana 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 15 34 46 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8643 Suggested Complementary Measures for The Indonesia Anti-Illegal Unregulated and Unreported Fishing Policy https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8640 <p>Illegal Unregulated Unreported (IUU) fishing threatens marine biodiversity and associated economic values. Recognizing this, the Indonesian government exercises a tough anti IUU fishing policy. The policy generates both success stories and failure issues. Biological parameters are better: disappeared species returned, catch per unit effort CPUE increased, fish size becomes larger, fishing trips are shorter. However, data show that the stock utilization is not optimum, fishing discard is high, and fishers’ income remains low. This study is aimed to formulate measures necessary to minimize side effects. Data were collected from selected landing places. It is concluded that the most notable factors causing detrimental side effects are lack of carrier vessels, inadequate cold handling infrastructure, poor processing facilities, and high shipping costs. Among complementary policy options, the most strategic one is integrating the anti IUU fishing policy with the national marine toll program. This paper also suggests that more frequent shipping and larger quota should be allocated by the program for transporting marine products from the production centers to processing, export, and consumer locations.</p> Agus Heri Purnomo Atikah Nurhayati Copyright (c) 2020 Agus Heri Purnomo, Atikah Nurhayati 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 15 47 61 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8640 Discriminatory Practices in School Environment and Their Elimination Through School Mediation in Slovakia https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8634 <p>Teaching about human rights and freedoms means teaching about human dignity, tolerance between people, acceptance of people as they are, justice, equality, self-control, and self-assertiveness. Not to allow unfairness, deception, injustice, inequality, the humiliation of oneself and others. Tolerance in the school environment includes the acceptance of different views, different behaviors, a different relationship, but also toleration and patience in relation to others. A pupil who is unable to cope with conflicts is unable to adapt to changes and risks his own decline. The main problem is not that there are conflicts between us, but in the way how we respond to them, how we can deal with them, and what we do to prevent them, or what we do to successfully resolve them. Conflicts in the school environment are a natural part of school life, indicating, in particular, the presence of differences. Conflict resolution through school mediation represents the ability to not only perceive, understand but particularly respond to and resolve conflict situations with the help of a third neutral person. School and peer mediation can be a way how to teach pupils to develop strong friendships, even in an environment of diversity and differences; it can be a preparation for inclusive educational system.</p> Katarína Vanková Copyright (c) 2020 Katarína Vanková 2020-02-21 2020-02-21 15 62 72 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8634 An Assessment of Marketisation of ‘Review’ Through Literature https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8269 <p>This exploratory qualitative study based on multiple-case studies collects reviewers’ comments using a ‘vector manuscript’ that carries 5 obvious mistakes for assessment. On the basis of the synthesized guidelines prescribed for the reviewers, these comments are measured and assessed. The assessment of the collected review comments of conferences, international journals, and that of the institutional level (N=126), suggests that the elements of negligence and marketisation have already infused in the academics of review. Those who were more oriented towards money were found to be 6.9 times more threatening in comparison to those who were not money-oriented. In this study, at the institutional level, those accepting gifts from the student before reviewing the paper are coded as asking for money.</p> Chandu Lal Chandakar Aiping Chen Copyright (c) 2020 Chandu Lal Chandakar, Aiping Chen 2020-03-06 2020-03-06 15 73 90 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8269 Unfamiliarity the Fertile Period Among Childbearing-Aged Women in Côte d'Ivoire: Towards the Demographic Dividend https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8669 <p>Most of the studies carried out in the field of fertility ignore the lack of knowledge of the fertile period among women of childbearing age, and those that do exist are biomedical in nature, thus leaving the sociodemographic approach on the shelf. In Côte d'Ivoire, 32% of women have a good knowledge of the fertile period against 68% with questionable knowledge. Yet, knowledge of the fertile period is important for birth control and has benefits such as avoiding drug side effects, immediate recovery of fertility and its being free of charge. This study intends to use secondary data from the 2011-2012 EDS-MICS of Côte d'Ivoire to highlight the extent to which the level of unfamiliarity with the fertile period vary among women of childbearing age and investigate related factors. The findings, based on both bivariate descriptive and multiple component factorial analyses, reveal a correlation between lack of knowledge of the fertile period and variables relating to standard of living, place of residence, religion, exposure to the media, marital status, level of education, use of birth control, and the woman's occupation. Therefore, addressing these variables, would not only help control both fertility, and family planning, but also help achieve the demographic dividend.</p> Tenguel Sosthene N'GUESSAN Niaminin Martin Roger KAKOU Copyright (c) 2020 Tenguel Sosthene N'GUESSAN, Niaminin Martin Roger KAKOU 2020-03-13 2020-03-13 15 91 101 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8669 Methods and Rule-of-Thumbs in The Determination of Minimum Sample Size When Appling Structural Equation Modelling: A Review https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8670 <p>Basic methods and techniques involved in the determination of minimum sample size at the use of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in a research project, is one of the crucial problems faced by researchers since there were some controversy among scholars regarding methods and rule-of-thumbs involved in the determination of minimum sample size when applying Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Therefore, this paper attempts to make a review of the methods and rule-of-thumbs involved in the determination of sample size at the use of SEM in order to identify more suitable methods. The paper collected research articles related to the sample size determination for SEM and review the methods and rules-of-thumb employed by different scholars. The study found that a large number of methods and rules-of-thumb have been employed by different scholars. The paper evaluated the surface mechanism and rules-of-thumb of more than twelve previous methods that contained their own advantages and limitations. Finally, the study identified two methods that are more suitable in methodologically and technically which have identified by non-robust scholars who deeply addressed all the aspects of the techniques in the determination of minimum sample size for SEM analysis and thus, the prepare recommends these two methods to rectify the issue of the determination of minimum sample size when using SEM in a research project.</p> Ranatunga, R.V.S.P.K. Priyanath, H. M. S. Megama. R.G.N, Copyright (c) 2020 Hunuwala Malawarage Suranjan Priyanath, Ranatunga RVSPK, Megama RGN 2020-03-19 2020-03-19 15 102 109 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8670 Social Management as a Current Challenge for Management and Sustainability of Efficiency in Social Services https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8679 <p>The paper discusses the requirement to develop social management. It specifies the strategic and current intention for social services and emphasises its contribution to improving the quality of professional and managerial activities in this field and the sustainability of efficiency. The study states the major research findings identifying the essential elements of management in the statements of future professionals in social services through the acquisition of important competencies and the overall professionalization of their field.</p> Lýdia Lehoczká Copyright (c) 2020 Lýdia Lehoczká 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 15 110 114 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8679 Reconstruction of Severance Pay and Workers' Rights Due to Termination of Employment (Layoff) Based on Justice Value https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8624 <p>Employers have an interest in increasing the productivity of their business performance, whereas workers have an interest in obtaining wages, rewards, or incentives from carrying out work. Employee relations with employers often occur disputes that end in Termination of Employment (layoff). The implementation of layoffs can lead to conflict if one party does not accept the dismissal decision. The settlement of the industrial relations dispute is generally settled using Law No. 13 of 2003 concerning Employment. But, in this law, there are still many weaknesses that can be distorted by and overlapping causes legal uncertainty inferred from Article 156 Paragraph (1). The purpose of this study is to carry out reconstruction in Article 156 Paragraph (1) to fulfill the element of justice for workers. This study uses empirical juridical approach method related to the granting of workers' rights due to layoffs. The type of data used in this study includes primary data and secondary data. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive analytics. The results of the study found that giving of workers' severance and rights due to layoffs occurred injustice and disadvantaged the workers as weak party. This injustice can be in the form of non-payment of rights that should be received by workers due to layoff, legal uncertainty, and ambiguity in the judge's decision. Therefore, in order to guarantee legal certainty on the balance of rights and obligations for employers and workers, the legal norms reconstruction in Article 156 Paragraph (1) needs to be emphasized by adding the length of time of the given rights and the reasons for the layoff workers’ rights.</p> Anis Mashdurohatun Rahmat syah Gun arto Copyright (c) 2020 Anis Mashdurohatun, Rahmat syah, Gun arto 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 15 115 126 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8624 Evaluation of Academic Staff Job Satisfaction at Malaysian Universities in the Context of Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8725 <p>Most academic staff don’t know what exactly makes them satisfy or dissatisfy at university and based on which effective factors they can improve and increase the level of their outcomes. Dissatisfaction occurred amongst academic staff when they don’t receive any basic motivational factors, versa job satisfaction happened when they obtained at least the fundamental facilities and considered via workplace (managers, leaders, and supervisors). There are numerous and effective factors that change attitudes and feelings of academic staff toward the job, likewise, change level of their outcomes; furthermore, recognizing these effective factors that rise level of job satisfaction among these group of staff; similarly, analyzing this factor as one of the important organizational factors in the context of Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory determined as main objective of this literature review. Overall, in this research endeavors to finding brilliant points and motivational factors that influence job satisfaction and clarifies them in an educational situation such as the university.</p> Aida Mehrad Copyright (c) 2020 Aida Mehrad 2020-05-01 2020-05-01 15 157 166 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8725 Smart Agri-preneurship Dimensions and Farm Productivity https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8709 <p>Smart agri-preneurship is instigating and shaping the scope and depth of farming in crops and animals rearing. This evolves from huge scientific advancement, implementation of various agribusiness tools, and infusion of technologies for the betterment of farm productivity. This paper probes the effect of smart agri-preneurship dimensions on farm productivity in South-West, Nigeria. Cross sectional survey research design was adopted and 558 agri-preneurs were sampled. A structured questionnaire was adapted and used after its validity and reliability were established. The research instrument was self-administered.&nbsp; The analysis revealed that the dimensions of smart agri-preneurship significantly affected farm productivity (Adj. R<sup>2</sup> = 0.671, F(6,551), 190.42, p = 0.000). The nature, level, and direction of individual relative effect differ across the constructs. The study recommends continuous deployment of advanced smart technologies that ensures high farm productivity.</p> A. J Egwakhe Ope Omodanisi O. E Ajike Copyright (c) 2020 Ope Omodanisi, A. J Egwakhe, O. E Ajike 2020-04-19 2020-04-19 15 127 138 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8709 Too little or too Much Freedom? – A Comparative Analysis of Corporate Governance Codes in the UK and Australia https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8729 <p>The purpose of corporate governance codes is to ensure that directors do not abuse their power to the disadvantage of the company’s shareholders or creditors, while at the same time affording them enough freedom to allow the company to operate in a competitive way and generate profits. This article evaluates the UK Corporate Governance Code and the Australian Corporate Governance Principles and Recommendations in order to ascertain the extent to which they strike an appropriate balance between preventing abuses of power by the board while affording them sufficient freedom to pursue innovation and entrepreneurship. The article concludes that the codes in both countries propose advanced approaches to corporate governance which to a significant extent protect the interests of the shareholders while encouraging board members to pursue innovation and entrepreneurship in a safe manner, through the adoption of appropriate risk management measures.</p> Badar Alanazi Copyright (c) 2020 Badar Alanazi 2020-05-01 2020-05-01 15 167 175 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8729 The Determinants of Bank Profitability Empirical Evidence from Vietnamese Commercial Banks in The Periods Of 2013 To 2018 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8745 <p>This research concentrates on the determinants of the profitability of the Vietnamese Commercial Banks. Both internal and external variables regarding the profitability of commercial bank sector will be focused in the analysis. Data over the period of 2013 to 2018 for 29 Vietnamese Commercial Banks<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1"><sup>[i]</sup></a> is obtained from via Stock Exchange or media. Fixed effect panel model are used to analyze the determinants of the profitability. By using this, we ensure for the effectiveness of the test result in terms of hypothesis along with size in order to get consistent results. The research is based on the scientific approach of quantitative methods to solve the problems posed, practical and effective service for the completion of the research purpose. The secondary data collected from the worldbank.org, vietdata.vn and annual reports (financial statement, balance sheet, etc.) of Vietnamese commercial banks in the 2013-2018 period to create asymmetric data tables will be processed on STATA software.</p> Dan Ngoc Minh Nguyen Anh Vu Copyright (c) 2020 Dan Ngoc Minh Nguyen, Anh Vu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 15 176 184 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8745 The Supportive Role of School Management on The Work Satisfaction of Male Teachers in A South African School District https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8604 <p>The paper focused on a specific research group (male teachers); firstly because of the shortage of male teachers in South African schools, and secondly, because male teachers are more dissatisfied in their overall work environment than female teachers. This study aimed to investigate, from an educational management perspective, the factors that influence job satisfaction amongst male teachers in schools in a sampled school district in Mpumalanga province. Throughout the study, it became apparent that male teachers are more likely to leave the South African education system than their female counterparts.</p> <p>A quantitative research approach was used to investigate factors affecting job satisfaction amongst male teachers&nbsp; distributing Likert-scale questionnaires amongst male teachers in selected schools in the district. The results of the study provide an outline of the crises that teachers in South Africa schools are facing, while the statistics and information portrayed in this study help to paint a picture of their work environment. A shortage of teachers, increasing learner enrolment and work overload are enough to create a highly stressful profession. Aspects identified as factors that affect job satisfaction amongst male teachers are the professional development of teachers, capacity building of teachers through collaboration and teamwork, effective support systems to teachers by management, workload of teachers, effective leadership of the principal, effective management of learner behaviour, positive work experiences by teachers, emotional distress of teachers and positive feelings towards teaching as a profession.</p> Dr Paul Triegaardt Jean-Pierre Hugo Copyright (c) 2020 Dr Paul Triegaardt, Jean-Pierre Hugo 2020-04-19 2020-04-19 15 139 156 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8604 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Effect of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic and Role of Emotional Intelligence https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8750 <p>Uncommon events during different decades and centuries create several challenges in the human lifestyle. Truthfully, individuals with any circumstances that have been occurred throughout their life illustrate various reactions and behaviours. In some cases, they report some issues such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) that is related to mental health which affected by any type of natural disasters, sickness, close relative dead, war, etc. At present, one of the crucial pandemic disasters caused by worldwide disease and death rates amongst individuals is Coronavirus (Covid-19) that has been spread enormous worries and anxiety in every society and country. The majority of individuals experienced this disaster and some of them demonstrate dissimilar types of anxiety and PTSD. The current literature review attempts to clarify the relation between Coronavirus (COVID-19) and PTSD based on the most recent investigations and reports, then link them to the role of Emotional Intelligence in reducing diverse unusual stress and severe nervousness such as PTSD that is the consequence of Coronavirus (COVID-19).</p> Aida Mehrad Copyright (c) 2020 Aida Mehrad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-22 2020-05-22 15 185 190 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8750 Impact of Women's Economic Activities in The Republic of Congo from 1990 to 2019 https://rajpub.com/index.php/jssr/article/view/8720 <p>Since the XX<sup>th </sup>century, and especially after the Second World War, particular attention was given to the status of women who for many years was overs had owed. These different events led policy makers at the international level as well as in different countries of the world to make courageous decisions globally in favor of women globally. These decisions have enabled women to take flight both by integrating socially themselves and by taking beneficial actions that could contribute to the economic and social development of their respective countries. On the economic level in particular, Congolese women exercise many activities related to their own initiative or to collective action, these different activities contribute to the economic development of the Republic of Congo. In the economic field, the man alone cannot ensure the development of the country, the Congolese woman also contributes to this development. </p> Oba Dominique Copyright (c) 2020 Oba Dominique https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 15 191 203 10.24297/jssr.v15i.8720