Individual Profiles of Psychological Capital in a Spanish Sample
Psychological Capital (PsyCap) consists of hope, self-efficacy, resilience and optimism. It is usually assumed that individuals score similarly across these four components, however, there have been suggestions in the literature that in some cases, people can score high on some dimensions and low on others, and that it is necessary to explore the matter further (Dawkins, 2014). Hence, the main objective of this article is to explore if the relationship between the dimensions of PsyCap results in individual profiles; to see which sociodemographic characteristics they have, and how the profiles relate to job satisfaction and performance.
The sample consists of 1752 employees from different companies in Spain. We used Latent Profile Analysis and the results revealed that a four-profile model is the best fit for our data, where Profile 1 was characterized by low self-efficacy and hope, and high resilience and optimism; Profile 2 by high self-efficacy and hope, and low resilience and optimism; Profile 3 by low self-efficacy and high hope, resilience and optimism; and Profile 4 by high scores on all PsyCap constructs.
The majority of the sample was classified in Profile 4, showing support for the unitary structure of PsyCap. However, for some individuals scores differed across the four PsyCap dimensions. Furthermore, there were high-low and low-high configurations for hope and self-efficacy on the one hand, and resilience and optimism on the other. Lastly, our results emphasize the combination of hope and self-efficacy as important contributors to employee outcomes.
Abbas, M., Raja, U., Darr, W., & Bouckenooghe, D. (2014). Combined Effects of Perceived Politics and Psychological Capital on Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intentions, and Performance. Journal of Management , 40(7), 1813–1830. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206312455243
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Youssef-Morgan, C. (2010). The Additive Value of Positive Psychological Capital in Predicting Work Attitudes and Behaviors. Journal of Management, 36(2), 430–452. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308329961
Avey, J. B., Reichard, R., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(2), 127–152. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.20070
Bagozzi, R. P., & Edwards, J. R. (1998). A General Apporach for Representing Constructs in Oganizational Research. Organizational Research Methods. Retrieved from https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/68713/10.1177_109442819800100104.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y
Bailey, T. C., & Snyder, C. R. (2007). Satisfaction with life and hope: A look at age and marital status. Psychological Record, 57(2), 233–240. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395574
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy-in-Cognitive-Development-and-Functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148. Retrieved from http://homepages.se.edu/cvonbergen/files/2013/01/Perceived-Self-Efficacy-in-Cognitive-Development-and-Functioning.pdf
Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge university press.
Bass, B. M. (1999). Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/135943299398410
Benito Hernandez, S., & Ramos Rodrigo, J. (2009). La creación de puestos de trabajo para el desarrollo profesional de las personas mayores de cuarenta años: el microemprendimiento. REVESCO. Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, (98). Retrieved from http://www.cis.es/cis/opencm/ES/1_encuestas/estudios/ver.jsp?estudio=2542&cuestionario=2569&muestra=800
Bergheim, K., Nielsen, M. B., Mearns, K., & Eid, J. (2015). The relationship between psychological capital, job satisfaction, and safety perceptions in the maritime industry. Safety Science, 74, 27–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2014.11.024
Busch, T. (1995). Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 12(2), 147–158. https://doi.org/10.2190/H7E1-XMM7-GU9B-3HWR
Cameron, K., & Dutton, J. (Eds. ). (2003). Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline.
Carifio, J., & Rhodes, L. (2002). Construct validities and the empirical relationships between optimism, hope, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Work, 19, 125–136. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1247
Celeux, G., & Soromenho, G. (1996). An entropy criterion for assessing the number of clusters in a mixture model. Journal of Classification, 13(2)(195–212).
Chopik, W. J., Kim, E. S., & Smith, J. (2015). Changes in Optimism Are Associated With Changes in Health Over Time Among Older Adults. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6(7), 814–822. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550615590199
Clark, S., & Muthén, B. O. (2009). Relating Latent Class Analysis Results to Variables not Included in the Analysis. StatisticalInnovations.com, 1–55. Retrieved from http://statmodel2.com/download/relatinglca.pdf
Dawkins, S. (2014). New directions in Psychological Capital research : A critical analysis and theoretical and empirical extensions to individual- and team- level measurement, (March), 1–297.
Dawkins, S., Martin, A., Scott, J., & Sanderson, K. (2013). Building on the positives: A psychometric review and critical analysis of the construct of Psychological Capital. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(3), 348–370. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12007
Dawkins, S., Martin, A., Scott, J., & Sanderson, K. (2015). Advancing conceptualization and measurement of psychological capital as a collective construct. Human Relations, 68(6), 925–949. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726714549645
Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Beyond money: Toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(1)(1–31).
Du Plessis, Y., & Barkhuizen, N. (2012). Psychological Capital, a Requisite for Organisational Performance in South Africa. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences. https://doi.org/10.4102/SAJEMS.V15I1.122
Edwards, J. R. (2001). Multidimensional constructs in O organizational behavior research: An integrative analytical framework. Organizational Research Methods, 4(2), 144–192. https://doi.org/10.1177/109442810142004
Enders, C. K. (2001). A Primer on maximum likelihood algorithms available for use with missing data. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(1), 128–141. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0801_7
Feingold, A., Tiberio, S. S., & Capaldi, D. M. (2014). New approaches for examining associations with latent categorical variables: Applications to substance abuse and aggression. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(1), 257–267. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031487
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. The American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–26. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218
Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E., & Larkin, G. R. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 365–76. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1995
Fu, J., Sun, W., Wang, Y., Yang, X., & Wang, L. (2013). Improving job satisfaction of Chinese doctors: The positive effects of perceived organizational support and psychological capital. Public Health, 127(10), 946–951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2012.12.017
González-Arratia Fuentes, N. I., & Valdez, J. L. (2015). Resiliencia. Diferencias por Edad en Hombres y Mujeres Mexicanos. Acta de Investigación Psicológica, 5(2), 1996–2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2007-4719(15)30019-3
Grimm, K. J., Castro-Schilo, L., & Davoudzadeh, P. (2013). Modeling Intraindividual Change in Nonlinear Growth Models with Latent Change Scores. GeroPsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(3), 153–162. https://doi.org/10.1024/1662-9647/a000093
Hamill, S. K. (2001). Resilience and Self-Efficacy : the Importance of Efficacy Beliefs and Coping Mechanisms in Resilient Adolescents, (July), 115–146.
Hertel, G., Rauschenbach, C., Thielgen, M. M., & Krumm, S. (2015). Are older workers more active copers? Longitudinal effects of age-contingent coping on strain at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(4), 514–537. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1995
Imam, T., Ali, H., & Soo, H. S. (2017). Psychological Capital: A Comprehensive Review and Classification. Asian Journalo Of Multidisciplinary Studies, 5(10), 152–162.
Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of Core Self-Evaluations Traits—Self-Esteem, Generalized Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Emotional Stability—With Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 80–92. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.86.1.80
Kauko-Valli, S. A., & Haapanen, M. (2013). Positive psychological capital and growth intentions of entrepreneurs. Academy of Management Proceedings.Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management, 1, 13473.
Keppel, G., & Wickens, T. D. (2004). Effect Size, Power, and Sample Size. In Design and Analysis (Vol. 2, pp. 1–10). Retrieved from http://www.skidmore.edu/~hfoley/Handouts/K.Ch8.notes.pdf
Larson, M. (2006). Potential Added Value of Psychological Capital in Predicting Work Attitudes. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies (Vol. 13). Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/10717919070130010701
Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B., & Peterson, S. J. (2010). The development and resulting performance impact of positive psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21(1), 41–67. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.20034
Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Clapp-Smith, R., & Li, W. (2008). More evidence on the value of Chinese workers’ psychological capital: A potentially unlimited competitive resource? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(5), 818–827. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190801991194
Luthans, F., Avolio, B., & Avey, J. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541–572. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00083.x
Luthans, F., Avolio, B., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541–572. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00083.x
Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2002a). Hope: A New Positive Strength for Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development Review, 1(3), 304–322. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484302013003
Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2002b). Hope: A new positive strengths for human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 3(3), 304–322. Retrieved from http://www.bus.umich.edu/
Luthans, F., Vogelgesang, G. R., & Lester, P. B. (2006). Developing the Psychological Capital of Resiliency. Human Resource Development Review, 5(1), 25–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484305285335
Luthans, F., & Youssef-Morgan, C. (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management. Carr Compton Keyes & Haidt Lopez & Snyder Snyder & Lopez. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206307300814
Luthans, F., & Youssef-Morgan, C. (2017). Psychological Capital : An Evidence-Based Positive Approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4(January), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032516-113324
MacDonald, P. L., & Gardner, R. C. (2000). Type I error rate comparisons of post hoc procedures for I × J chi-square tables. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60(5), 735–754. https://doi.org/10.1177/00131640021970871
Mackenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2011). Construct Measurement and Validation P Rocedures in Mis and B Ehavioral Research : Integrating New and Existing Techniques. MIS Quarterly, 35(2), 293–334. https://doi.org/10.2307/23044045
Magaletta, P. R., & Oliver, J. M. (1999). The hope construct, will, and ways: Their relations with self-efficacy, optimism, and general well-being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(5), 539–551. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199905)55:5<539::AID-JCLP2>3.0.CO;2-G
Meyers, M. C., van Woerkom, M., de Reuver, R. S. M., Bakk, Z., & Oberski, D. L. (2015). Enhancing Psychological Capital and Personal Growth Initiative: Working on Strengths or Deficiencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(1), 50–62. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000050
Newman, A., Ucbasaran, D., Zhu, F., & Hirst, G. (2014). Psychological capital: A review and synthesis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(SUPPL.1), S120–S138. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1916
Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535–569. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701575396
Pajares, F. (2002). Gender and perceived self-efficacy in self-regulated learning. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 116–125. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4102_8
Parker, S. K. (1998). Enhancing role breadth self-efficacy: the roles of job enrichment and other organizational interventions. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 835–52. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9885197
Peel, D., & McLachlan, G. J. (2000). Robust mixture modelling using the t distribution. Statistics and Computing, 10(4)(339–348).
Peña Vallejo, A. (2017). La generación Y ante el desafío de su inserción laboral: realidades frente a estereotipos ; Generation Y facing the challenge of employability: facts against stereotypes. ARBOR Ciencia, Pensamiento Y Cultura, 193783(375), 210–1963. https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2017.783n1006
Pérez, J., & Fidalgo, M. (1995). NTP 394: Satisfacción laboral: escala general de satisfacción. Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad E Higiene En.
Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55(1), 44–55. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.44
Peterson, S. J., Luthans, F., Avolio, B., Walumbwa, Z., & Zhang, F. O. (2011). Psychological capital and employee performance: A latent growth modeling approach. Personnel Psychology, 64, 427–450. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00246.x
Rauschenbach, C., & Hertel, G. (2011). Age differences in strain and emotional reactivity to stressors in professional careers. Stress and Health, 27(2)(48–60).
Rego, A., Marques, C., Leal, S., Sousa, F., & Pina e Cunha, M. (2010). Psychological capital and performance of Portuguese civil servants: exploring neutralizers in the context of an appraisal system. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(9), 1531–1552. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2010.488459
Schafer, J. L. (1999). Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Stat Methods Med Res, 8(1), 3–15. https://doi.org/10.1177/096228029900800102
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychol, 4(3), 219–47. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6188.8.131.52
Siu, O. L., Bakker, A. B., & Jiang, X. (2014). Psychological Capital Among University Students: Relationships with Study Engagement and Intrinsic Motivation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(4), 979–994. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9459-2
Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. a, & Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(2), 321–335. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061
Sweetman, D. S., Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., & Luthans, B. C. (2011). Relationship between positive psychological capital and creative performance. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences de l’Administration, 28(1), 4–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjas.175
Vaportzis, E., Clausen, M. G., & Gow, A. J. (2017). Older Adults Perceptions of Technology and Barriers to Interacting with Tablet Computers: A Focus Group Study. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1687. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01687
Wagnild, G., & Young, H. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the resiliency scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165–178.
Waynor, W. R., Gao, N., & Dolce, J. N. (2012). The Paradoxical Relationship Between Hope and the Educational Level of People in Recovery. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 15(3), 299–311. https://doi.org/10.1080/15487768.2012.703560
Weller, J. (2006). Procesos de exclusión e inclusión laboral. Naciones Unidas, (August), 1–83. Retrieved from http://repository.eclac.org/bitstream/handle/11362/5449/S01121044_es.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship and In-Role Behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601–617. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700305
Wong, M., Gardiner, E., Lang, W., & Coulon, L. (2008). Generational differences in personality and motivation: Do they exist and what are the implications for the workplace? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(8), 878–890. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940810904376
Youssef?Morgan, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2015). Psychological capital and well?being. Stress and Health, 31(3), 180–188.
Zhou, M., & Kam, C. C. S. (2016). Hope and General Self-efficacy: Two Measures of the Same Construct? Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 150(5), 543–559. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2015.1113495
Copyright (c) 2019 Nia Plamenova Djourova, Isabel Rodríguez, Laura Lorente-Prieto
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).