# A Unifying Theory for Quantum Physics, Part 2:

## Exit from the Labyrinth of Quantum Strangeness

## DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24297/jap.v20i.9268## Keywords:

quantum weirdness, QM, quantum mechanics contradictions## Abstract

The quantum world is allegedly strange. But is it? What if there’s a simple mathematical explanation, and a simple solution? The success of quantum mechanics (QM) arises from the accuracy of its probability predictions, which are obtained by squaring amplitudes (the Born rule). Suppose for a moment that nature uses the negative of QM’s equations. When squared they would yield the same probabilities, confirmed by the same experiments and technological triumphs. If that were true, if nature uses the negative of QM’s equations, then the quantum world would become transparent, easy to understand. No more Schrödinger’s-cat. No quantum-eraser. No backwards-in-time cause-and-effect. No paradoxes nor enigmas. But, what’s a negative quantum equation? It could mean that particles follow zero-energy waves backwards, instead of forwards. That’s still an eccentric idea, a residual strangeness. Overall, it’s a bargain. We could swap one odd idea for another, because wave-particle duality is odd. We are accustomed to wave-particle duality. But we’ll show that experiments support the other arrangement: quantum particles follow zero-energy waves backwards. How could that possibly be true? We present substantial experimental evidence, new mathematics, and six dozen colorful illustrations. This is the Theory of Elementary Waves (TEW).

### Downloads

## References

J. Baggott, The Quantum Story: a history in 40 moments, Oxford University Press, (2011). ISBN:978–0-19-956684-6

M. Born, “On the quantum mechanics of collisions,” in J. A. Wheeler and W. H. Zurek (eds.), Quantum Theory and Measurement, Princeton, 50-55, (1983). ISBN 978-0-691-08316-2.

J.H. Boyd, “The Max Born asymmetry topples the Many-Worlds Theory,” Journal of Advances in Physics, 20, 143-169, (2022). DOI: 10.24297//jap.v20i.9114

J.H. Boyd, “Common-sense rejected by physicists: a level-headed approach to time and quantum physics,” Journal of Advances in Physics, 19, 233-280, (2021). DOI: 10.24297//jap.v19i.9115

J.H. Boyd, “PDE boundary conditions that eliminate quantum weirdness: a mathematical game inspired by Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 20, 211-213, (2021). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v20i.9042

J.H. Boyd, “Six reasons to discard wave-particle duality.” Journal of Advances in Chemistry, 18, 1-29, (2021). DOI: 10.24297/jac.v18i.8948

J.H. Boyd, “The Periodic Table needs negative orbitals in order to eliminate quantum weirdness,” Journal of Advances in Chemistry, 17, 88-125, (2020). DOI: 10.24297/jac.v17i.8865

J.H. Boyd, “There are two solutions to the equations of Feynman’s Quantum Electrodynamics (QED),” Journal of Advances in Physics, 18, 39-57, (2020). DOI: 10.24297/jap.v18i.8831

J.H. Boyd, “If the propagator of QED were reversed, the mathematics of Nature would be much simpler,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 18, 129-153, (2020). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v18i.8746

J.H. Boyd, “A tiny, counterintuitive change to the mathematics of the Schrödinger wave-packet and Quantum Electro-Dynamics could vastly simplify how we view Nature,” Journal of Advances in Physics, 17, 169-203, (2020). DOI: 10.24297/jap.v17i.8696

J.H. Boyd, “New Schrödinger wave mathematics changes experiments from saying there is, to denying there is quantum weirdness,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 18, 82-117, (2020). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v18i.8656

J.H. Boyd, “Decrypting the central mystery: 1. The double-slit experiment,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 17, 255-282, (2019). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v17i0.8475

J.H. Boyd, “Decrypting the central mystery: 2. A mountain of empirical data supports TEW,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 17, 283-314, (2019). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v17i0.8489

J.H. Boyd, “Decrypting the central mystery: 3. A non-Einstein, non-QM view of Bell test experiments,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 17, 315-331, (2019). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v17i0.8490

J.H. Boyd, “Decrypting the central mystery: 4. In what medium do Elementary Waves travel?” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 17, 332-351, (2019). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v17i0.8491

J.H. Boyd, “The quantum world is astonishingly similar to our world,” Journal of Advances in Physics, 14, 5598-5610, (2018). DOI: 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7555

J.H. Boyd, “The von Neumann and double-slit paradoxes lead to a new Schrödinger wave mathematics,” Journal of Advances in Physics, 14, 5812-5834, (2018). DOI: 10.24297/jap.v14i3.7820

J.H. Boyd, “The Boyd Conjecture,” Journal of Advances in Physics, 13, 4830-4837, (2017). DOI: 10.24297/jap.v13i4.6038

J.H. Boyd, “A symmetry hidden at the center of quantum mathematics causes a disconnect between quantum math and quantum mechanics,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 13, 7379-7386, (2017). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v13i4.6413

J.H. Boyd, “Paul Dirac’s view of the Theory of Elementary Waves,” Journal of Advances in Physics, 13, 4731-4734, (2017). DOI: 10.24297/jap.v13i3.5921

J.H. Boyd, “A paradigm shift, 1: The Theory of Elementary Waves (TEW),” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 10, 3828-3839, (2015). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v10i9.1908

J.H. Boyd, “A paradigm shift, 2: A new local realism explains Bell test and other experiments,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 10, 3828-3839, (2015). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v10i9.1884

J.H. Boyd, “A paradigm shift, 3: A mirror image of Feynman’s quantum electrodynamics (QED),” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 11, 3977-3991, (2015). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v11i2.1283

J.H. Boyd, “A paradigm shift, 4: Quantum computers, Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 17, 315-331 (2019). DOI: 10.24297/jam.v17i0.8490

J.H. Boyd, “A new variety of local realism explains a Bell test experiment,” Journal of Advances in Physics, 8, 2051-2058, (2015). DOI: 10.24297/jap.v8i1.1541

J.H. Boyd, “Re-thinking a delayed choice quantum eraser experiment” Physics Essays, 26, 100-109, (2013). DOI: 10.4006/0836-1398-26.1.100

J.H. Boyd, “Re-thinking Alain Aspect’s 1982 Bell test experiment,” Physics Essays, 26, 582-591 (2013). DOI: 10.4006/0836-1398-26.1.100 10.4006/0836-1398-26.4.582

J.H. Boyd, “Rethinking a Wheeler delayed choice gedanken experiment,” Physics Essays, 25, 390-396, (2012). DOI: 10.4006/0836-1398-25.3.390

C.J. Davisson and L.H. Germer, “Scattering of electrons by a single crystal of nickel,” Nature 119, 558–560 (1927). DOI: 10.1038/119558a0

P.A.M. Dirac, The Principles of Quantum Mathematics, Oxford University Press, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-19-852011-5.

R.P. Feynman, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Princeton University Press, (1985). ISBN 978-0-691- 12575-6

R.P. Feynman, Feynman Lectures on Physics, 3. New York: Basic Books, (1966). ISBN 0-20102114-9-H.

R.P. Feynman and A.R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, (c1965). ISBN-13 978-0-468-47722-0.

M. Giustina, “Significant loophole-free test of Bell’s-theorem with entangled-photons”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tgoWM4Jcl-s

V. Jacques, et.al., “Experimental verification of Wheeler’s delayed-choice gedanken experiment, Science, 315, 966-8 (2007). DOI: 10.1126/science.1136303

H. Kaiser, et.al., Coherence and spectral-filtering in neutron-interferometry. Physical Review A, 45, 31-42, (1992). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.45.31

Y.H. Kim, et.al., “A delayed-choice quantum-eraser.” Physical Review Letters 84, 1-5, (2000). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.1

L.E. Little, “Theory of Elementary Waves,” Physics Essays, 9, 100-134, (1996). DOI: 10.4006/1.3029212

R.L. Pfleegor and L. Mandel, "Interference of independent photon beams," Physical Review, 159, 1084 (1967). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.159.1084

E. Schrödinger, Collected Papers on Wave Mechanics, Montreal: Minkowski Institute Press, (2020), ISBN: 978-1-927763-81-0.

## Downloads

## Published

## How to Cite

*JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS*,

*20*, 215–291. https://doi.org/10.24297/jap.v20i.9268

## Issue

## Section

## License

Copyright (c) 2022 Jeffrey Boyd

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

All articles published in *Journal of Advances in Linguistics* are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.