# Photon Characteristics and Behavior under Refractive Index

## DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24297/jap.v20i.9220## Keywords:

energy Introduction, wavelength, refractive index, mass, photon## Abstract

The effective mass, energy and momentum of photon in medium is described. The photon has both kinetic and potential energy and displays an effective mass when travelling through a medium. The photon is a type of elementary particle that serves as the quantum of the electromagnetic field and is explained through equations to have an elastic constant, volume, momentum, force, power and zero rest mass. The theory that photons a massless only applies to rest mass. A photon undergoes different dynamics such as strain and changes in effective mass under the influence of the refractive index that gives rise to a refractive force. This study synthesizes some properties of energy such as elastic constant, weight, and volume in order to explain the nature of photons and photon dynamics under refractive index. In this study, a helical spring model has been used to describe the behavior of a photon in the medium. The model connects together the exhibited properties such as energy, effective mass, spin, elastic constant and volume. Further explanation is given to the effect of gravitational force on wavelength and refractive index of air, and how gravitational force causes red and blue shifts in photon propagation. The quantization of energy has been extended to the quantization of space, time and matter. This study is consistent and consolidates the existing classical and quantum theories. There are further potential applications in optical communication, quantum cryptography, quantum optics, and medicine, especially in the use of two-photon excitation microscopy and photodynamic therapy.

### Downloads

## References

F. Terranova. A Modern Primer in Particle and Nuclear Physics, (Oxford Univ. Press: ISBN 0-19-284524-1, 2021).

A. W. Thomas, X. G. Wang, and A. G. Williams. “Constraints on the dark photon from deep inelastic scattering”, Phys. Rev. D, 105, L031901 (2022).

E. A. Carlen, K. Fellner, I. Gallagher and P. E. Jabin. “Classical and Quantum Mechanical Models of Many-Particle Systems”, Oberwolfach Rep., 17(4), 1857–1902 (2020).

D. Yuan and Q. Liu. “Photon energy and photon behavior discussions”, Energy Reports, 8(2), 22-42 (2022).

A. Moradi. “Distribution of electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and dissipative metamaterial”, Journal of Modern Optics, 68, 634-640 (2021).

M. Goray and R. N. Annavarapu. “A novel way of understanding the linear momentum of photon”, Optik, 248, 165488 (2021).

M. Goray and R. N. Annavarapu. “Rest mass of photon on the surface of matter”, Results in Physics, 16,102866 (2020).

T. P. Pearsall. In: Quantum Photonics. Graduate Texts in Physics, (Springer, Cham., ISBN 978-3-030-47325-9, 2020).

X. P. Orbán and J. Mira. “Dimensional scaffolding of electromagnetism using geometric algebra”, Eur. J. Phys., 42, 015204 (2021).

J. Wei and X. Wu. “Robust limits on photon mass from statistical samples of extragalactic radio pulsars” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 07, 045 (2018).

V. M. Katkov. “Influence of an Electric Field on the Propagation of a Photon in a Magnetic field”, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 732, 012003 (2016).

Z. Osiak. “Energy in Special Relativity”, Theoretical Physics, 4, 22-25 (2019).

A. Salih. (2013). “Mass, energy and momentum of photon in medium”, International Journal of Physical Sciences, 8, 1190-1192 (2013).

L. B. Okun. “Mass versus relativistic and rest masses”, American Journal of Physics, 77, 430 (2009).

S. Chen. “Double Helix Structure of Photon”, Physical Science International Journal, 24, 31-41 (2020).

C. Wei, X. Youan, Y. Zhiyong and Z. Zhonghao. “Magnetic field analysis of solenoid driven by alternating current”, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1237(3), 032073 (2019).

M. Krenn, M. Malik, M. Erhard, and A. Zeilinger. “Orbital angular momentum of photons and the entanglement of Laguerre–Gaussian modes”, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 375, 20150442 (2017).

B. Chen, Y. Wei, T. Zhao et al. “Bright solid-state sources for single photons with orbital angular momentum”, Nat. Nanotechnol., 16, 302-307 (2021).

E. I. Guendelman, I. Shilon, G. Cantatore and K. Zioutas. “Photon production from the scattering of axions out of a solenoidal magnetic field”, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 06, 031 (2010).

T. Yokouchi, F. Kagawa, M. Hirschberger, Y. Otani, N. Nagaosa and Y. Tokura. “Emergent electromagnetic induction in a helical-spin magnet”, Nature, 586, 232 (2020).

Z. Dai, J. Wang, M. Long, H. Huang and M. Sun. “Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil”, AIP Advances, 7, 095013 (2017).

A. Meessen. “From Space-Time Quantization to Dark Matter” Journal of Modern Physics, 8, 35-56 (2017).

G. Hooft. “How quantization of gravity leads to a discrete space-time”, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 701, 012014 (2016).

G. Mpantes. “The Quantization of Space and Time”, Journal of powder Metallurgy and Mining, 6, 157 (2017).

T. Bothwell, C. J. Kennedy, A. Aeppli et al. “Resolving the gravitational redshift across a millimetre-scale atomic sample”, Nature, 602(7897), 420 (2022).

A. V. Toporensky and O. B. Zaslavskii. “Redshift of a photon emmitted along the black hole horizon”, Eur. Phys. J. C., 77,179 (2017).

A. Muller and M. Wold. “On the signature of gravitational redshift: the onset of relativistic emission lines”, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 457(2), 485-492 (2006).

## Downloads

## Published

## How to Cite

*JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS*,

*20*, 169–184. https://doi.org/10.24297/jap.v20i.9220

## Issue

## Section

## License

Copyright (c) 2022 Given Kalonga, Rodrick Symon Katete, Joseph Simfukwe, Adrian Habanyama

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

All articles published in *Journal of Advances in Linguistics* are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.