Possible Explanation of the Quark Confinement and Asymptotic Freedom, and Possible Solution to the Yang-Mills Mass Gap Problem


  • Antonio Puccini




Electromagnetic(EM), Quantum Fields Theory(QFT), Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (SSB), Strong Interaction(SI), Quark(Q), Gluon(G), Photon(P), Dark Energy(DE)


With this work, we try to answer 3 fundamental questions that have plagued mathematicians and physicists for several decades. As known, the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) and the Brout-Englert-Higgs Mechanism (BEH-M) solved the Yang-Mills Mass Gap Problem. However, various mathematicians, even prestigious ones, consider the basic assumptions of the gauge theories to be wrong, as well as in conflict with the experimental evidences and in clear disagreement with the facts, distorcing the physical reality itself. Likewise, the Quantum Fields Theory (QFT) is mathematically inconsistent, adopting a mathematical structure somewhat complicated and arbitrary, which does not satisfy the strong demands for coherence. The weakest point of the gauge theories, in our opinion, consists in imposing that all the particles must be free of an intrinsic mass (massless).

On the contrary, even for the particle considered universally massless, i.e. the photon (P), our calculations show a dynamic-mass, a push-momentum (p) of 1.325⋅10−22[g⋅cm/s]. That is, an optic P hits a particle with an energy-mass greater than 100 protons rest-mass’. It is clear that if we replaced this value with the full value of the P inserted in the equations of the Perturbation Theory, QFT and Yang-Mills theories, all divergences, that is all zeroes and infinities, would suddenly disappear.

Consequently, the limits imposed by the SSB disappear so that there is no longer any need to deny the mass to the Nuclear Forces bosons, including the Yang-Mills b quantum. Still, the photons (Ps) are the basis of the quantum vacuum energy, which is distributed ubiquitously, also within the intra-atomic spaces. It is likely that a lot of Ps were trapped in atomic nuclei (at the time of nucleosynthesis) and among quarks (Qs) at the time of primordial nucleonic synthesis. We believe that when Qs get too close to each other, till repelling each other (Asymptotic Freedom of Qs), this may depend on the presence of a multitude of Ps that, no further compressible, begin to exert an antigravity repulsive force, just as a Dark Energy. This limit to Compressibility (C) of the radiation is shown in equation: PV 4/3 = C, where V is the volume, and P is the Pressure of the photonic gas. Quantum Mechanics plays a crucial role, through the Uncertainty Principle, in the spatial Confinement of Qs, which have remained eternally confined in an extremely narrow space by the  Strong Interaction, but in primis by the very short range (likely ≈8.44[±1.44]⋅10-16cm) and lifetime of gluon(G) which, from our calculations, is ≈2.73[±0.564]⋅10-26 sec. Therefore, a new parameter may be added to the Qs and G spatial Confinement: the b quantum or G Temporal Confinement (and of their Colours and anti-Colours). 


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Antonio Puccini

Neurophysiologist of Health Ministry, Naples – Italy


Maiani L. “60 anni di Yang-Mills”, Il Nuovo Saggiatore, 31,5-6, 22-32 (2015).

Einstein A., “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper”, Annalen der Physik,17,4,891-921 (1905).

Spaziani A., Introduction: “Il Guado di Einstein” and “L’Enciclopedia,” in “Relativitatstheorie” by Wolfgang Pauli in “Encyklopadie der mathematischen Wissenschaften,” Teubner, Leipzig 1921,vol.5,pt.2,art.19,Bollati Boringhieri ed., Torino, XII, XXI- XXII, 1958,1974, and (2008).

Einstein A., “Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie”, Annalen der Physik,49, 769-822 (1916).

Penrose R., “The Einstein Equation of General Relativity,” in “It Must Be Beautiful. Great Equations of Modern Science“, Granta Publications, London, Graham Farmelo,2002 Il Saggiatore Ed.(Milano),275-278,257, (2005).

Martone G.I., “Separazione spin-carica nella teoria di Yang-Mills SU(2)”, Tesi di Laurea in Fisica, relatore L.Martina, Salento’s University, Italy (2010).

Baggott J., “Higgs: The Invention and Discovery of the ‘God Particle’,” 2012 Jim Baggott, Oxford University Press; Adelphi Ed., Milano, 47,45,55,77-80,92 (2013).

Noether E., “Invariant variation problem,” Math.-phys. Klasse, 235-257, (1918).

Weyl H., “Gravitation und Elektrizital”, Sitzungsber Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin,465,480 (1918).

Fock V., “Uber die invariant Form der Wellenund der Bewegungsgleichungen fur einen geladenen Massenpunkt”, Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol.39, Issue 2–3,226-232 (1926).

London, F., "Quantenmechanische Deutung die Theorie von Weyl". Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol.42, ,375-389 (1927).

Weyl H.,“Elektron und Gravitation”, Zeitschrift fur Physik, 56, 330-352 (1929).

Casalbuoni R., “Teoria dei Campi”, INFN Firenze, Seminario Fisica-Filosofia, 4 e 11/5 (2001).

Nambu Y..and Jona-Lasinio G., “Dynamical Model of Elementary Particles Based on an Analogy with Superconductivity.I”, Phys.Rev.,122,345-358 (1961).

Goldstone J., “Field theories with ‘Superconductor’ solutions”, Il Nuovo Cimento,19,1,154-164 (1961).

Goldstone J., Salam A. and Weinberg S., “Broken Symmetries”, Phys.Rev.,127,965-970 (1962).

Englert F. and Brout R., “Broken Symmetry and the Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons,” Phys.Rev. Lett.,13,321-323 (1964).

Higgs P.W., “Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons”, Phys.Rev. Lett., 13, 508-509 (1964).

Guralnik G.S., Hagen C.R., and Kibble T.W.B., “Global Conservation Laws and Massless Particles,” Phys.Rev.Lett., 13, 585-587 (1964).

Puccini A., “Higgs Boson Radius of Action,” International Journal of Innovation Engineering and Science Research, Vol.2, Iss.6, 43-46, November-December (2018).

Randall L., “Knocking on Heaven’s Door”, Lisa Randall 2011-2012; il Saggiatore ed. (Milano) 293,92-98,442,123 (2012).

Penrose R., “The Road to Reality”,2004 Roger Penrose; RCS ed.,Milano,450-455,641-643, 654,743,293,261 (2005).

Quirantes A., “Lo Spazio-Tempo Quantistico”,2015 RBA, Contenidos ed., Spagna;  RBA Italia, Milano,78-79 (2016).

Pauli W., “Zur Theorie der Gravitation und der Elektrizitat von Hermann Weyl”, Physikalische Zeitschrift, vol.20,457-467 (1919).

Pauli W., “Merkurperihelbewegung und Strahlenablenkung in Weyls Gravitationstheorie”, Verhandhungen der Deutschen Phisikalischen Gesellschaft, vol.21, 742-750 (1919).

Casalbuoni R., “Advances Quantum Field Theory”, INFN Firenze, Lessons (2004-2005).

Maiani L., “Conservazione del numero barionico”, Fermi Lectures 25, INFN, Rome, 16th April (2015).

Maiani L., “Teoria Standard alle temperature del Big Bang”, Fermi Lectures 24, INFN, Rome, 20th March (2014).

Thankappan V.K., “Quantum Physics”, ©1993,1985; New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers, New Delhi, India, 267 (1993).

Dirac P.A.M., “The Quantum Theory of the Emission and Absorption of Radiation”, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, London, Vol.114,767,243 (1927).

Heisenberg W., Pauli W. “Zur Quantendynamik der Wellenfelder”,Zeitschrift für Physik, Volume 56, Issue 1-2, 1-61 (1929).

Puccini A., “The Missing Mass in the Universe May Be Represented by the Dynamic-mass of the Photons”, Session 3P1: Optics and Photonics, Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Cambridge (Ma), USA,816-818, July 5-8 (2010).

Oppenheimer J.R., “On the Theory of Electrons and Protons”, Phys.Rev.(Letter to the Editor), vol.35, issue.5,562 (1930).

Peruzzi G., “Richard Feynman. Dall’elettromagnetismo classico alla QED”, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Incontri di Fisica, 7 ottobre (2015).

Oppenheimer J.R., “Note on the Theory of the Interaction of Field and Matter”, Phys. Rev., Vol.35,iss.5,461-477 (1930).

Waller I., “Bemerkungen über die Rolle der Eigenenergie des Elektrons in der Quantentheorie der Strahlung“, Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol.62, Issue 9-10, 673-676 (1930).

Barrow J.D., “The Book of Nothing”, John D. Barrow 2000,1st published by Jonathan Cape 2000; Mondadori Ed., Milano,239-240,220-221 (2001).

Dirac P.A.M., “Structure et proprietes des noyaux atomiques”, Septiem Conseil de Physique Solvay, Paris, 22-29 October (1933).

Feynman, R.P., “QED. The Strange Theory of Light and Matter”, 1985 Richard P. Feynman; Adelphi ed., Milano, 156-160,175,184-185,30,164 (1989).

Furry W.H., Oppenheimer J.R., “On the Theory of the Electron and Positive“, Phys. Rev., 45,4, 245-262 (1934).

Dirac P.A.M,, “Classical theory of radiating electrons”, Proc. Royal Society A, London, Vol.167, Iss. 929, 148-169 (1938).

Sinigardi S., “Calcoli Perturbativi in QED e in QCD”,Università di Bologna 4 novembre(2009).

Heisemberg W., “Uber die in der Theorie der Elementarteilchen auftretende Universelle Länge (On the Universal Length Occurring in the Theory of Elementary Particles)”. Annalen der Physik, 32, 20-32. (, 1938).

Lusignoli M., “Cosa si intende per rinormalizzazione?”, 0035. INFN, Scienza Per Tutti (2002).

Lamb W.E.Jr., Retherford R.C., “Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom by a Microwave Method”, Phys. Rev.,Vol.72,N.3, 241-243 (1947).

Schwinger J.S., “Quantum Electrodynamics. 1. A Covariant Formulation,” Phys.Rev., 74, 1439-1461 (1948).

Tomonaga S., “On a Relativistically Invariant Formulation of the Quantum Theory of Wave Fields”, Progress of Theoretical Physics, Vol.1, Iss..2, 27-42, Aug.-Sept. (1946).

Wheeler J.A., Feynman R.P., “Classical Electrodynamics in Terms of Direct Interparticle Action”, Rev. Mod. Phys., 21, 425-433 (1949).

Feynman R.P., “Space-Time Approach to Quantum-Electro-dynamics”, Phys. Rev. 76,679, (1949).

Heismberg W., “Über den Bau der Atomkerne I”, Zeitshrift fur Physik,77,1-11 (1932).

Yang C.N., Mills R.L., “Conservation of Isotopic Spin and Isotopic Gauge Invariance” Phys.Rev.,Vol.96,N°1,191-195 (1954).

Sutton C., “The Yang-Mills Equation”, in “It Must Be Beautiful. Great Equations of Modern Science“, Granta Publ., London, G.Farmelo,2002; Il Saggiatore Ed.(Milano),330-333 (2005).

Han M.Y., Nambu Y., “Three-Triplet Model with Double SU(3) Symmetry”, Phys. Rev., Vol.139, Issue 4B,1006-1010 (1965).

Fritzsch H. and Gell-Mann M., Proceedings of the XVI International Conference on High Energy Physics. Chicago,135 (1972).

Faris W.G., Review of “It Must Be Beautiful: Great Equations of Modern Science,” edited by Graham Farmelo; Dept. Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, faris@math.arizona.edu

Casarsa M, “L’origine della massa e il bosone di Higgs”, INFN Trieste, ’Trieste Next’, 28-30 September (2012).

INFN: “Unità di Misura”,www.infn.it

Yang Chen Ning, Selected Papers with Commentary, W.H.Freeman &, San Francisco (1983).

Yang C.N., “Elementary Particles”, Princeton University Press, New Jersey,1961; Boringhieri ed. (Torino), Table 5 (1969).

Gershtein S.S., Zel’dovič J.B., “Meson corrections in the theory of beta decay”, Sov. Phys. JETP, 2, 576 (1957).

Feynman R.P., Gell-Mann M., “Theory of the Fermi Interaction“, Phys. Rev.,109,193-197 (1958).

Weinberg S., “A Model of Leptons”, Phys. Rev. Lett.,19,1264-1266 (1967).

Glashow S.L.,” Partial-Symmetries of Weak Interactions”, Nuclear Physics,22,579-588 (1961).

Gell-Mann M., “A Schematic Model of Baryons and Mesons” Phys. Lett., 8, 214-215 (1964).

Zweig G., “A Su(3) Model For Strong Interaction Symmetry And Its Breaking. 2”, CERN -TH-412 (1964).

Cabibbo N., “Unitary Symmetry and Leptonic Decays”,Phys.Rev.Lett.,10,12,531-533 (1963).

Glashow S.L., Iliopoulos J., Maiani L., “Weak Interactions with Lepton-Hadron Symmetry”, Phys. Rev. D 2,1285-1292 (1970).

Salam A., in “Elementary Particle Theory: Groups and Analycity”, in Proceedings of the Nobel Symposium1968, Svartholm Ed.,Almquist and Wiksell(Stocholm), Lerum Sweden,367-377 (1968).

‘t Hooft G., Veltman M.J.G.,“Regularization and Renormalization of Gauge Fields”, Nuclear Physics B,44,189-213(1972).

Kobayashi M., Maskawa T., “CP Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction”, Progr. Theor. Phys., 49,652-657 (1973).

Maiani L., “Interazioni Elettrodeboli”, INFN Roma, anno accademico 2009-2010.

Yukawa H., “On the Interaction of Elementary Particles”, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Japan, 17,48-57 (1935).

Maiani L., “Il bosone nella teoria elettrodebole”, Fermi Lectures 19, INFN, Rome, 13th February (2014).

Civinini C., “l’Unificazione Elettrodebole”, INFN, Lessons Università di Firenze (2005).

Weinberg S., “Conceptual Foundations of the Unified Theory of Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions”, Nobel Lecture, December 8 (1979).

Weinberg S., Foreword in “Higgs: The Invention and Discovery of the God Particle”, by Baggott J.,2012; Adelphi Ed. (Mi),13-19 (2013).

Hawking, S., “A Brief History of Time”,1988 by Stephen W. Hawking, Bantan Books ed.; Rizzoli ed., Milano,90,77,100-101 (1990).

CERN Seminar, “Latest update in the search for the Higgs boson”, Geneve, 4th July 2012; http://cms.web.cern.ch/ and http://atlas.ch/

Maiani L., “Bosone di Higgs, ci Siamo vicini”, Il Sole24Ore, RCS ED., Milano,1 Luglio (2012).

Barber D.P. et al., “Discovery of Three-Jet Events and a Test of Quantum Chromodynamics at PETRA”, Phys.Rev.Lett.,Vol.43,Iss.12,830-833 (1979).

Puccini A., “The Inflationist Expansion of the Universe Was Conducted by Very High Energy Photons” (Session 3P1: Optics and Photonics). Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Cambridge (Ma), 819-822, USA, July 5-8 (2010),

Witten E., “Essay concepts”, Nature Publishing Group (2004).

Puccini A., “On the Boson’s Range of the Weak Nuclear Force”, viXra.org, Nuclear, and Atomic Physics: 1705.0351 (2017).

Corcella G., “Il campo di Higgs”, INFN, Scienza Per Tutti, Gennaio (2017).

Amaldi U., “Sempre più veloci”, Zanichelli Ed., Bologna (2012).

Amaldi U., “Le Traiettorie della Fisica”, Zanichelli Ed., Bologna (2018).

Feynman R.P., “The Feynman Lectures on Physics”. Vol.1 ,1965,1989 California Institute of Technology (Caltech); Zanichelli Ed., Bologna,vol.1,17-7;10-13; 34-5,16,17;39-8(2001).

Achenbach J., “La Luce“, National Geographic, Italian edition, Milano,10,8 (2001).

Galison P.,L’equazione del Sestante: E=mc2 in “It Must be Beautiful. Great equations of Moderne Science”; Granta Publ.,London,2002; il Saggiatore ed.,Milano,119,107-114 (2005).

Chandrasekhar B.S., “Why Things Are the Way They Are”, Cambridge Universit Press,1998; Il Saggiatore ed., Milano, 84,125,304,72 (2004).

Puccini A., “About the Zero Mass of Photon”, Progress in Electromagnetics Research, Vol.55, 117-146 (2005).

Puccini A., “About the Zero Point Energy, Zero Point Mass, Zero Point Temperature and Zero Point Motion in the Subatomic World and Photonics”, Proceedings of Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Suzhou, China, 1169-1171, Sept. 12-16 (2011).

Heisemberg W.,“Uber den anscauliken Inhalt der Quantentheoritschen Kinematik und Mechanik“, Zeitschrift fur Physik,Vol.43,172-198 (1927).

Puccini A., “Uncertainty Principle and Electromagnetic Waves”, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications,Vol.19,7, 885-890 (2005).

Puccini A., “The Equivalent Rest-mass of Photon” (Session 2P2: Electromagnetic Theory and Design on the Optical Dispersive Materials, Invisible Cloak, and Photonic Crystals). Proceedings of Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Marrakesh, Morocco,723-725, Mar.20-23 (2011).

Fermi E. “Argomenti pro e contro l’ipotesi dei quanti di luce”, Nuovo Cimento,3,201-206 (1926).

de Broglie L., “Ondes et quanta”, Comtes Rendus, Vol.177, 507-510 (1923).

Weinberg S., “The First Three Minutes. A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe”, 1977 by S.Weinberg; Mondadori Ed.(Milano),75,125 (1977)

Puccini A., “Light Weighs”, Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, Vol.8,161-177 (2008).

Iohanne Keplero, “De Cometis Libelli Tres.”, publisher Augustae Vindelicorum, typis Andreae Aspergeri, sumtibus Sebasiani Mylii bibliopolae Auguftani (1619).

Puccini A., “A Mechanical Effect Induced by Electromagnetic Radiation May Explain the Wave Function Collapse of a Quantum Object”(Session 2P2: Electrom.Theory and Design on the Optical Dispersive Materials, Invisible Cloak, and Photonic Crystals).

Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco,726-728, Mar.20-23(2011) Frenkel Y., “Die Elektrodynamik des rotierenden Elektrons,” Zeit. f. Phys. 37,243-262 (1926).

Wikipedia, “Renormalization”, 2.

Steinmann O., “Perturbative quantum electrodynamics and axiomatic field theory”, Springer, Berlin, 2 (2000).

Sharf G., “Finite Quantum Electrodynamics: The Causal Approach”: Section 3.9, 2nd ed., Springer, New York (1995).

Foldy L.L., “The Electromagnetic Properties of Dirac Particles”, Phys. Rev. 87, 688 – 693 (1952).

Are electrons pointlike/structureless? https://www.mat.univie.ac. at/~neum/physical/ topics/ pointlike.http

Eides M.I., Grotch H., Shelyuto V.A,, “Theory of Light Hydrogenlike Atoms”, Phys. Rep.,

, 63-261 (2001).

How big is an electron?| Gravity and Levity https://gravityandlevity.wordpress.com›2015/04/11

ACME Collaboration: Andreev V., Ang D.G., DeMille D., Gabrielse G. et al., “Improved limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron”, Nature, 562, 355–360 (2018).

Gerald Gabrielse, “Limit on Electron Substructure”(review), webpage at Harvard University,


Puccini A., “About the Interference Induced by Electrons. Why does the Electron Behave like a Wave”, Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 58,199-222 (2006).

Brodsky S.J., Drell S.D., “Anomalous magnetic moment and limits on fermion substructure,” Phys. Rev., D, Vol.22, Issue 9, 2236-2243 (1980).

Bourilkov D., “Hint for axial-vector contact interactions in the data on e+e-→ e+e-(γ) at center

of mass energies 192–208 GeV”, Phys. Rev. D, Vol.64, Issue 7, 071701(Rapid commun) (2001).

Puccini A., “The Momentum of Luminous Photon Can Explain the Mistery of the Scission of the Water Molecule, Fundamental Event in the Clorophyllose Photosynthesis”, Proceedings of Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Moskow, Russia, 353-357, August 19-23 (2012).

Is a proton larger in size than an electron? – Quora https://www.quora.com/Is-a-proton- larger-in-size-than-an-electron. 4 giu 2017.

Haken H., Wolf H.C., “The Physics of Atoms and Quanta: Introduction to Experiments and Theory”, Springer, 70 (2005).

Lloyd S., “Programming the Universe. A Quantum Computer Scientist Takes on the Cosmos“,  2006 Seth Lloyd; Einaudi ed., Torino,123 (2006).

Puccini A., “Quantum Gravity is Induced by a Mechanical Effect Elicited by Momentum of Light’s Quanta”, Asian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.10,1,9206-9220 (2019).

Feynman R.P., “The Feynman Lectures on Physics”.Vol.3: “Quantum Mechanics”, 1965, 1989 California Institute of Technology; Zanichelli ed.,Bologna,Vol.3,16-7,21-1,1-11 (2001).

de Broglie M.L., “Notice sur les Travaux Scientifique”, Hermann&C., Ed., Paris,26 (1931).

Dehmelt, H., "A Single Atomic Particle Forever Floating at Rest in Free Space: New Value for Electron Radius", Physica Scripta, T22, 102–110 (1988).

Pauli W. Letter to participants of the Conference in Tubingen(1930), Septiem Conseil de Physique Solvay, 6th December 1930.

Puccini A., ʺNeutral Electron Instead of Neutrino: A New Beta-Decay Modelʺ, viXra.org, Nuclear, and Atomic Physics: 1706.0202 (2017).

Fukuda S.et al.,ʺEvidence for Oscillation of Atmospheric Neutrinos”, Pyys.Rev.Lett., 81,1562 (1998).

Puccini A., “Light Quantum Induces the Measurement Paradox”, J. Advances in Physics, Vol.15, 6039-6055 (2018).

Schrödinger E., “Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem,” Annal. der Physik,79, 361-376 (1926).

von Neumann J., “Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics”, Princeton University

Press, New Jersey (1955).

Puccini A., “Correct Quantum Gravity is a Mechanical Effect Induced by Dynamic-Mass of

Light’s Quanta”, viXra.org., Quantum Gravity and String Theory, 1712.0546 (2017).

Prigogine I., “Le Leggi del Caos”, Laterza ed.,Bari,61,(1993).

Puccini A., “The Momentum of Photon May Explain the Measurement’s Paradox in the Subatomic World” (Session 1A2: Electromagnetic Theory and Design on the Optical Dispersive Materials, Invisible Cloak, and Photonic Crystals). Proceedings of Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Suzhou, China, 27-30, Sept. 12-16 (2011).

Woodford C., “Electron Microscopes”, home page>Science>Electron microscopes, April 7 (2018).

Passera M., “L’Infinito sotto il tappeto”, asimmetrie.it INFN Padova, aprile (2016).

Han M.Y.,, Nambu Y., “Three-Triplet Model with Double SU(3) Symmetry”, Phys. Rev., x Vol.139, Iss. 4B,1006-1010 (1965).

Puccini A., “On the Higgs Boson’s Range”, viXra.org, Quantum Physics:1705,0250 (2017).

Fermi E.,“Atomi Nuclei Particelle” a cura di V. Barone, Boringhieri Ed.(Torino),140 (2009).

Puccini A., “On the Bosons’Range of the Weak Interaction”, J. Advances in Physics, Vol.14, Issue 3, 5865-5868 (2018).

Gross D.J., Wilczek F., “Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories. I”, Phys. Rev. D, 8,3633-3652, (1973).

Gross D.J., Wilczek F., “Ultraviolet Behavior of Non-Abelian Gauge Theories”, Phys.Rev.Lett., Vol.30, 26, 1343-1346 (1973).

Politzer H.D., “Reliable Perturbative Results for Strong Interactions?”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 30, 1346-1349 (1973).

Bjorken J.D., “Asymptotic Sum Rules at Infinite Momentum”, Phys. Rev., Vol.179, Iss.5, 1547-1553 (1969).

Altarelli G., Parisi G., “Asymptotic freedom in parton language”, Nucl. Phys., B, Vol.126, Iss.2, 298-318 (1977).

Dokshitzer Y.L., “Calculation of structure functions of deep-inelastic scattering and e+e- annihilation by perturbation theory in quantum chromodynamics”, Sov.Phys.,JETP,46,4, 641 (1977).

Quigg, C., “Particelle elementari e forze”, Le Scienze, Milano (Italian edition of Scientific American inc., New York), 2, 20-31 (1985).

Fritzsch H. and Gell-Mann M., “Current Algebra: Quarks and What Else?”, Proceedings of the XXVI International Conference on High Energy Physics, Chicago,135-165 (1972).

Georgi H., Politzer H.D., “Electroproduction was scaling in an asymptotically free theory of strong interactions”, Phys.Rev.D,Vol.9, 2, 416-420 (1974).

Gross D.J., Wilczek F., “Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories.II,”, Phys.Rev. D,Vol.9,4,980-993, (1974).

Appelquist T., Politzer H.D., “Heavy Quarks and e+ e- Annihilation”, Phys.Rev.Lett., Vol.34,1, 43-45 (1975).

Dionisi C.,”QCD”,Corso di Fisica Nucleare e Subnucleare II, Roma, INFN, Lesson 5/2/2005.

Levy M.M., “Meson Theory of Nuclear Forces and Low Energy Properties of the Neutron-Proton System”, Phys.Rev.,88,725-738 (1952).

Eisenbud L. and Wigner E.P., “Nuclear Structure”, Princeton University Press, N.J.,1958; Boringhieri, Edizioni Universitarie, (Torino),40-41 (1960).

Pacini F., ”L’Universo”, Editori Riuniti,Roma,158,280-289 (1982).


Rees A. et al. “Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant", The Astronomical Journal,116,3,1009-1038 (1998).

Perlmutter S. et al., “Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae", The Astrophysical Journal, 517, 2, 565-586 (1999).

Hack M., “Dove nascono le stelle”, Sperling & Kupfer ed., Milano,166,169-171 (2004).

Aczel A. D., “God’s Equation”, Amir D. Aczel 1999, Four Walls Eight Windows ed., New York; il Saggiatore ed., Milano, 25,138,141,175 (2000).

Ferris T., “Matter and Dark Energy”, National Geographic, Italian edition,1,74-89 (2015).

Bhattacharjee Y., “The Universe”, National Geographic, Italian edition,4,42-67 (2014).

Dark matter | CERN | https://home.cern/science/physics/dark-matter


European Space Agency (ESA): Planck and the Cosmic Microwave Background, https://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Planck/Planck_and_the_cosmic_microwave_background

The Planck Collaboration, "Planck 2013 results. 1.Overview of products and scientific results”, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol.571, A1,1-48, November (2014).

Rovelli C., “Così è rinato l’ Universo”, il Sole 24 ore, Milano, 276,33 (2011).

Ashtekar A., “Gravity, Geometry and the Quantum”,arXiv:gr-qc/0605011v2 14 Jul 2006 Nat’l Academies Press, The National Academy of Science, USA, “Nuclear Physics.

Chapter 5: Nuclear Astrophysics”,111(1986).

Guth A., “Inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems”, Physical Review D, Vol.23, N°2,347-356 (1981).

Amendola L., “Costante Cosmologica, Energia Oscura ed Espansione dell’Universo”, INFN, http:/www.asimmetrie.it/tags/tag/energia-oscura

Pauli W., "Über den Zusammenhang des Abschlusses der Elektronengruppen im Atom mit der Komplexstruktur der Spektren", Zeitschrift für Physik, 31, 765–783 (1925).

Jaffe A.M. and Witten E., “Quantum Yang-Mills Theory”, Clay Mathematics Institute, Millenium Prize problem.


Penrose R., “The Emperor’s New Mind”,  1989 Oxford Univerity Press; Rizzoli (RCS) Ed., Milano, 287 (1997).

uccini A., “Dark Energy Particle is the Photon”, viXra.org, Astrophysics:1903.0359 (2019).

Wilczeck F., “Something Magic”, in “It Must be Beautiful. Great Equations of Modern Science”, Granta Publications (London),2002; Il Saggiatore ed., Milano,221,218-219 (2005).

Lubicz V., “Particelle a colori. L’energia che dà la massa alle cose”,asimmetrie.it[as14]massa INFN Bohr N., ”The Quantum Postulate and the Recent Development of Atomic Theory", Nature, 121, 580–590 (1928).

Maiani L.,”Gauge Theories”, INFN Università di Roma 1, anno accademico 2005-2006.

Ciafaloni P., “Il Modello Standard delle interazioni elettrodeboli”,INFN, Lecce University.

Maiani L., “Ancora Quanti e un po’ di Relatività”, Fermi Lectures 3, INFN, Rome, 20th November (2014).

Casolino M.A., “Ricerca del bosone di Higgs nel canale di decadimento H → ZZ*→l+ l qq̄ nell'esperimento ATLAS ad LHC”, Tesi di Laurea in Fisica, relatori M.G. Alviggi e A.

Conventi, Università di Napoli Federico II (2012).

Barone V.,“La fisica tra verità e bellezza”,Il Sole 24 Ore,RCS Ed., Milano,29,17th February 2019.

Dirac Paul A.M., “La bellezza come metodo”, a cura di Vincenzo Barone, R.Cortina Ed., Milano, (2019).

Barrow J.D., “The Constants of Nature. From Alfa to Omega”,2002 John D. Barrow, Jonathan Cape 2002; Mondadori Ed., Milano,293 (2003).

Einstein A., “Ist die Tragheit eines Korpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhӓngig?”, Annalen der Physik,Vol.18,639-641 (1905).

Klein E., “Il etait sept fois la revolution”,2005 ed. Flammarion; Cortina ed.,Milano,64-65 (2005).

Maiani L.,“Il bosone bifronte”, Il Sole 24 Ore,RCS Ed.,Milano,281,33,13th October (2013).

Eddington A., “Joint Eclipse Meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society”, in The Observatory (Review of Astronomy), vol.27, 545,389, Nov.(1919).

Zeilinger A.,“Einsteins Schleier. Die neve Welt der Quantenphysik“, 2003,Verlag C.H., Munchen; G. Einaudi ed.,Torino,130-131 (2005).

Bencivenga E., “Tutta l’energia del mondo”, Il Sole 24 Ore,RCS Ed.,Milano,27,9th June (2019).

Barone V., “E=mc2. La formula più famosa”, Il Mulino Ed., Bologna (2019).

Peruzzi G., “La fisica dei quanti, tra storia, filosofia della fisica e epistemologia”, Università di Padova, Corso di Perfezionamento-IPRASE Trentino, Trento, 146, 2-3 settembre (2004).

Kragh H.,”Dirac: A scientific biography”, Cambridge Univerity Press, USA, 184 (1990).

Feynman R., “The Character of Physical Law”,1965, British Broadcasting Corporation, London; Bollati Boringhieri ed., Torino,177-179 (1971).

Penzias A.A., Wilson R.W., “A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s”, Astrophysical Journal,142, 419-421 (1965).

Puccini A., “Dark Energy Particles May Be Photons”, International Journal of Science and Research, Vol.8, Iss.8, 473-491 (2019).

Weinberg S., “Anthropic Bound on the Cosmological Constant”, Phys. Rev.Lett., 59, 22, 2607- 2610 (1987).



How to Cite

Puccini, A. (2019). Possible Explanation of the Quark Confinement and Asymptotic Freedom, and Possible Solution to the Yang-Mills Mass Gap Problem. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS, 16(1), 391-478. https://doi.org/10.24297/jap.v16i1.8492