Attitude Fosters Support for Indonesia’s Drug War: A Quantitative Analysis of The University Students of Indonesia
Keywords:Public Suppot, Attitude, War on Drugs, Indonesia
This quantitative study investigates the direct attributors to the formation of the intention of the Indonesian university students in supporting the War on Drugs of the Widodo administration. The core of this research rest upon the imperative role of public support to the furtherance of the enforcement of contentious policies such as the War on Drugs This study is theoretically anchored from the Theory of Planned Behavior of Icek Ajzen which links Attitude, Subjective norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control to intention - the intention to support the War on Drugs of Jokowi’s administration. In answer to the questions raised by the research, a self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted to 194 students enrolled in selected universities in Indonesia, namely, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Universitas Islamic Institute, and Universities Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. Structural Equation Modelling and regression analysis was employed in evaluating and analyzing the results gathered from the survey. The analysis revealed that among Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceive Behavioral Control, only Attitude has emerged to have a positive impact over the intention of the students to support Indonesia’s Drug War Strategies. Hence, positive attitude towards the drug war is argued to drive intentions of support from the public. Consequently, in programs aimed at increasing public support for Drug War, attitude transformation strategies must be the core focus.
Ajzen, I. (1991) “The theory of planned behavior”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), pp.179-211
Ajzen, I. and Klobas, J. (2013) “Fertility Intentions: An Approach based on the Theory of Planned Behavior” Demographic Research, 29(8), pp. 213-232, doi: 10.4054/DemREs. 2013.29.8.
Aquino, N. (2017) “Broad Support for Duterte's Drug War in Philippines, Pew Finds”, 22 September. Bloomberg News. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-09-21/duterte-approval-ratings-stands-at-86-pew-research-center-poll, accessed January 4, 2018.
Ceder, A. and Chowdhury S. (2013) “A Psychological Intervention on Public-Transport Users’ Intention to Use Routes with Transfers”, International Journal of Transportation, 1(1), pp. 1-20, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijt.2013.1.1.01
Cook, E. (2018) “Beware of Indonesia’s Quiet Drug War”, 12 January. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2018/01/beware-indonesias-quiet-drug-war/, accessed on March 4, 2018.
Fichten, C., et al. (2016) “Theory of Planned Behavior Predicts Graduation Intentions of Canadian and Israeli Postsecondary Students with and without Learning Disabilities/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, International Journal of Higher Education, 5(1), pp. 208-219, E-ISSN: 1927-6052
Fielding, K., Mcdonald, R., and Louis, W. (2008) “Theory of planned behaviour, identity and intentions to engage in environmental activism”, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(4), pp. 318-326, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.03.003. ISSN: 0272-4944.
Fransiska, A., Larasati, A., and Gunawan, R. (2011) “Between Diego and Mario: Children, Families, and the Drug War in Indonesia”, In Children of the Drug War: Perspective on the Impact of Drug Policies on Young People, Barrett, D. (Ed), pp. 142-150, New York: International Debate Education Association. ISBN: 978-1-61770-081-7
Garson, D. (2016) Validity and Reliability, 2016 Edition, Asheboro, NC: Statistical Associates Publishing, ISBN: 978-1-62638-043-1.
Gefen, D., Straub, D., and Boudreau, M. (2000) “Structural Equation Modeling and Regression: Guidelines for Research Practice”, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(7), pp. 1-77. http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol4/iss1/7
Grieve, R. and Elliott, J. (2013) “Cyberfaking: I Can, So I Will? Intentions to Fake in Online Psychological Testing”, Cyberpsycholog, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16 (5), pp. 364-369, doi:10.1089/cyber.2012.0271, ISSN 2152-2715.
Grimmelikhuijsen, S., et al. (2016) “Behavioral Public Administration: Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology”, Public Administration Review, 77(1): 45-56, doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12609
Hambali, S. (2017) “Why Indonesia’s drugs problem is getting worse despite ‘shoot on sight’ orders and draconian laws”, November 21, South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/article/2120688/why-indonesias-drugs-problem-getting-worse-despite-shoot-sight-orders-and, accessed on January 4, 2018.
Hair Jr., J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. and Anderson, R.E. (2010) Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. 7th Edition, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River.
Hulland, J. (1999) Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies, Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), pp. 195-204, Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3094025
Indonesia Investment. 2016, October 24. How many drug users are there in Indonesia?, Retreived from https://www.indonesia-investments.com/news/todays-headlines/how-many-drug-users-are-there-in-indonesia/item7298, accessed January 4, 2018.
Knabe, A. (2012) Applying Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to a Study of Online Course Adoption in Public Relations Education, Dissertations (2009), Paper 186. Retreived from http://epublications.marquette.edu/dissertations_mu/186
Linchia, D., Heningdyah, L., and Kusumawardhani, N. (2017) “Progressive Step of Narcotic Abuse Eradication in Globalization Era”, Proceeding the 2017 International Conference on Globalization of Law and Local Wisdom. 1(2), pp. 155-171 . ISSN: 978-602-142373-9
Maulia, E. (2015) “Narcotics Agency: Drugs Kill 33 Indonesians Daily, Not 40-50”, March 10, Jakarta Globe. Retreived from http://jakartaglobe.id/news/bnn-says-33-die-of-drugs-daily-not-40-50/
National Narcotics Board (BNN). (2016) “Drug Abuse Prevalence Survey in Household in 20 Provinces Budget Year 2015”, Center of Research, Data and Information, ISBN: 978-602-74498-1-7
Nunnally, J.C. (1978) Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Otieno, O. et al. (2016) “Theory of reasoned action as an underpinning to technological innovation adoption studies”, World Journal of Computer Application and Technology, 4(1), pp. 1-7, doi: 10.13189/wjcat.2016.040101.
Reuters Report (2017, July 22). Indonesian President orders officers to shoot drug traffickers, Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election-convention/republicans-to-hold-2020-convention-in-north-carolina-idUSKBN1KA2EP, accessed on January 14, 2018.
Schneider, A. and Ingram, H. (1990) “Behavioral Assumptions of Policy Tools”, The Journal of Politics, 52(2): 510-529, doi: 126.96.36.199, Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2131904.
Simatupang, E. (2016) “Getting Out of the Trap of War on Drugs”, Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik, 20(2), pp. 9-23, ISSN: 2477-4693
Stoicescu, C. (2017) “Why Jokowi's war on drugs is doing more harm than good”, 26 July, Aljazeera, Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2017/07/jokowi-war-drugs-harm-good-170725101917170.html, accessed January 4, 2018.
Strang, J., et al. (2012) “Drug policy and the public good: evidence for effective interventions”, Lancet 2012. 379, pp. 71–83.
Urbach, N. and Ahlemann, F. (2010) “Structural equation modeling in information systems research using partial least squares”, Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, 11(2), pp. 5-40.
Yi, S., et al. (2017) “Prevalence and associated factors of illicit drug use among university students in the association of southeast Asian nations (ASEAN)”, Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 12(9), doi:10.1186/s13011-017-0096-3.
How to Cite
All articles published in Journal of Advances in Linguistics are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.