# The Max Born Symmetry Topples the Many-Worlds Theory

## DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24297/jap.v20i.9114## Keywords:

Interpretations of QM, Hugh Everett, Many Worlds Interpretation, Wave-function Collapse, Alternative Quantum Physics## Abstract

All “interpretations” of Quantum Mechanics (QM) are predicated on the assumption that quantum mathematics is correct. We disagree. The Born rule implies that nature may have a hidden symmetry: |+*ψ*|^{2} = |–*ψ*|^{2} = probability. If nature uses –*ψ* then physicists would not recognize that their math is 100% wrong. This hypothesis could explain the mystery that quantum math appears to be the most accurate and productive mathematics humans ever possessed, the source of our high-tech economy, yet scientists cannot agree on what the quantum world is like: does it exist, are there infinitely many worlds, etc. If we change our wave-function from +*ψ* to –*ψ*, that will mean that quantum particles follow zero-energy “Elementary Waves” backwards. This symmetry does not conform to Noether’s Theorem because it does not involve physical space, rather an error in the human imagination. Wave-function collapse no longer occurs when a quantum particle is observed. It occurs when a free particle is emitted: when the particle selects which in-coming Elementary Wave to follow backwards. This undermines the foundations of the many-worlds theory. A superposition of states collapses as a particle is emitted, becoming only one state, located in only one world, not many.

Type (Method/Approach): No one previously recognized the Born rule could hide a “Born Symmetry”: |+*ψ*|^{2} ≡ |–*ψ*|^{2}. If so, it would be so immense, pervasive, insidious, and invisible that it could explain all quantum “weirdness” even though quantum math is the most accurate and productive science ever.

### Downloads

## References

J. Baggott, The Quantum Story: a history in 40 moments, Oxford University Press, 2011. ISBN:978–0-19-956684-6

A. Becker, What Is Real? Basic Books, 2018. ISBN:978–0-19-956684-6

J. J. Binney, “Introduction to quantum mechanics” YouTube video from Oxford University (2009). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AufmV0P6mA0&list=PL2A9C1996CBC49F48 (accessed May 30, 2015).

M. Born, “On the quantum mechanics of collisions,” in J. A. Wheeler and W. H. Zurek (eds.), Quantum Theory and Measurement, Princeton, pp.50-55, 1983. ISBN 978-0-691-08316-2.

M. Born, “Zur Quantenmechanik der Stoßvorgänge. Zeitschrift für Physik, 37,” pp. 863-867, 1926. DOI: 10.1007/BF01397477

M. Born, “The statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics,” Nobel Lecture, Dec. 11, 1954, pp. 256-267.

J. H. Boyd, “Common-sense rejected by physicists: a level-headed approach to time and quantum physics,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol. 19, pp. 233-280, 2021. DOI: 10.24297//jap.v19i.9115

J. H. Boyd, “PDE boundary conditions that eliminate quantum weirdness: a mathematical game inspired by Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 20, pp. 211-213, 2021. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v20i.9042

J. H. Boyd, “Six reasons to discard wave particle duality.” Journal of Advances in Chemistry, 18, 1-29, 2021. DOI: 10.24297/jac.v18i.8948

J. H. Boyd, “6 reasons to discard wave particle duality,” a YouTube video, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LD4xXl5gMzg&t=2s

J. H. Boyd, “The Periodic Table needs negative orbitals in order to eliminate quantum weirdness,” Journal of Advances in Chemistry, vol. 17, pp.88-125, 2020. DOI: 10.24297/jac.v17i.8865

J. H. Boyd, “There are two solutions to the equations of Feynman’s Quantum Electrodynamics (QED); the newly discovered solution is free of quantum weirdness,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol. 18, pp. 39-57, 2020. DOI: 10.24297/jap.v18i.8831

J. H. Boyd, “If the propagator of QED were reversed, the mathematics of Nature would be much simpler,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 18, pp. 129-153, 2020. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v18i.8746

J. H. Boyd, “A tiny, counterintuitive change to the mathematics of the Schrödinger wave-packet and Quantum ElectroDynamics could vastly simplify how we view Nature,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol. 17, pp. 169-203, 2020. DOI: 10.24297/jap.v17i.8696

J. H. Boyd, “New Schrödinger wave mathematics changes experiments from saying there is, to denying there is quantum weirdness,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 18, pp. 82-117, 2020. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v18i.8656

J. H. Boyd, “Decrypting the central mystery of quantum mathematics: Part 1. The double-slit experiment,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, 2 vol. 17, pp. 255-282, 2019. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v17i0.8475

J. H. Boyd, “Decrypting the Central Mystery of Quantum Mathematics: Part 2. A mountain of empirical data supports TEW,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 17, pp. 283-314, 2019. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v17i0.8489

J. H. Boyd, “Decrypting the central mystery of quantum mathematics: Part 3. A non-Einstein, non-QM view of Bell test experiments,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 17, pp. 315-331, 2019. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v17i0.8490

J. H. Boyd, “Decrypting the central mystery of quantum mathematics: Part 4. In what medium do Elementary Waves travel?” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 17, pp. 332-351, 2019. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v17i0.8491

J. H. Boyd, “The quantum world is astonishingly similar to our world,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol. 14, pp. 5598-5610, 2018. DOI: 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7555

J. H. Boyd, “The von Neumann and double-slit paradoxes lead to a new Schrödinger wave mathematics,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol.14, pp. 5812-5834, 2018. DOI: 10.24297/jap.v14i3.7820

J. H. Boyd, “The Boyd Conjecture,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol. 13, pp. 4830-4837, 2017. DOI: 10.24297/jap.v13i4.6038

J. H. Boyd, “A symmetry hidden at the center of quantum mathematics causes a disconnect between quantum math and quantum mechanics,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 13, pp. 7379-7386, 2017. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v13i4.6413

J. H. Boyd, “Paul Dirac’s view of the Theory of Elementary Waves,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol. 13, pp. 4731-4734, 2017. DOI: 10.24297/jap.v13i3.5921

J. H. Boyd, “A paradigm shift in mathematical physics, Part 1: The Theory of Elementary Waves (TEW),” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 10, pp. 3828-3839, 2015. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v10i9.1908

J. H. Boyd, “A paradigm shift in mathematical physics, Part 2: A new local realism explains Bell test & other experiments,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 10, pp. 3828-3839, 2015. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v10i9.1884

J. H. Boyd, “A paradigm shift in mathematical physics, Part 3: A mirror image of Feynman’s quantum electrodynamics (QED),” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 11, pp. 3977-3991, 2015. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v11i2.1283

J. H. Boyd, “A paradigm shift in mathematical physics, Part 4: Quantum computers and the local realism of all 4 Bell states,” Journal of Advances in Mathematics, vol. 11, pp. 5476-5493, 2015. DOI: 10.24297/jam.v11i7.1224

J. H. Boyd, “The Theory of Elementary Waves eliminates Wave Particle Duality,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol. 7, pp. 1916-1922, 2015. DOI: 10.24297/jap.v7i3.1576

J. H. Boyd, “A new variety of local realism explains a Bell test experiment,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol. 8, pp. 2051-2058, 2015. DOI: 10.24297/jap.v8i1.1541

J. H. Boyd, “A proposed physical analog of a quantum amplitude,” Journal of Advances in Physics, vol. 10, pp. 2774-2783, 2015. DOI: 10.24297/jap.v10i3.1324

J. H. Boyd, “Re-thinking a delayed choice quantum eraser experiment: a simple baseball model,” Physics Essays, vol. 26, pp. 100-109, 2013. DOI: 10.4006/0836-1398-26.1.100

J. H. Boyd, “Re-thinking Alain Aspect’s 1982 Bell test experiment with delayed choice,” Physics Essays, vol. 26, pp. 582-591, 2013. DOI: 10.4006/0836-1398-26.1.100 10.4006/0836-1398-26.4.582

J. H. Boyd, “Rethinking a Wheeler delayed choice gedanken experiment,” Physics Essays, vol. 25, pp. 390-396, 2012. DOI: 10.4006/0836-1398-25.3.390

D. Chopra, Quantum Healing: exploring the frontiers of mind/body medicine, New York: Bantam Books, c1989 & 2015. ISBN 978-1-101-88498-3

J. G. Cramer, “Transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics”. In: Greenberger D., Hentschel K., Weinert F. (eds) Compendium of Quantum Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-70626-7_223

J. G. Cramer, “An overview of the transactional interpretation,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol.27 pp. 227-236, 1988. DOI: 10.1007/BF00670751

Eagle, B. “Schrödinger equation – a simple derivation,” (2012). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsX5iUKNT2k&t=5s

H. Everett, J. A. Wheeler, B.S. DeWitt, L.N.Cooper, D. Van Vechten, and N. Graham, “Theory of the Universal Wave-Function,” pp. 1-150, in DeWitt, B.S., and N. Graham, editors, The Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, Princeton University Press (1973). ISBN: 0-69188131-X

R. P. Feynman, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Princeton University Press, 1985. ISBN 978-0-691- 12575-6

R. P. Feynman, Feynman Lectures on Physics, vol. 2. New York: Basic Books, c1964. ISBN-13: 978-0-4650294-0

R. P. Feynman and A. R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, c1965. ISBN-13 978-0-468-47722-0.

C. A. Fuchs, N. D. Mermin, and R. Schack, "An introduction to QBism with an application to the locality of quantum mechanics," arXiv: 1311.52531v1, November 20, 2013.

C. A. Fuchs and A. Peres, "Quantum theory needs no 'interpretation,'" Physics Today, vol. 53, issue 3, p. 70 (March 2000). DOI: 10.1063/1.88304

O. Freire. “Interview with Dr. Franco Selleri,” American Institute of Physics: Oral History Interviews (2003). https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/28003-1. and https://www.aip.org/history- programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories/28003-2. (accessed Sept 2, 2020)

G. Gabrielse, D. Hanneke, T. Kinoshita, et. al., “New determination of the fine structure constant from the electron g value and QED,” Physical Review Letters, 97, 030802 (2006). DOI: 10.1007/BF00670751

R. G. Hulet, E. S. Hilfer, and D. Kleppner, “Inhibited spontaneous emission by a Rydberg atom,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 55, pp. 2137-2140, 1985. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.55.2137

R. E. Kastner, Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: the reality of possibility, (Cambridge University Press, 2013). ISBN: 978-1108407212

R. E. Kastner, “de Broglie waves as the ‘bridge of becoming’ between quantum theory and relativity,” Foundations of Science 18, 1-9 2013 DOI:10.1007/s10699-011-9273-4

T. S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, (Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 1970. ISBN 978-0-226-45803-8.

L. E. Little, The Theory of Elementary Waves, (New Classics Library, Gainsville, GA), 2009. ISBN: 978-0-932750-84-6.

L. E. Little, “Theory of Elementary Waves,” Physics Essays, vol. 9, pp. 100-134, 1996. DOI: 10.4006/1.3029212

L. E. Little, “Theory of Elementary Waves @ JPL, Feb 2000,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_9LB0RzgWg

L. E. Little “Introduction to Elementary Waves,” 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xx5V03iCbAo&t=16s

L. E. Little, “We have seen these waves,” 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xWMiNsD_xdM&t=5s

N. D. Mermin, "Is the moon there when nobody looks? Reality and the quantum theory," Physics Today, 38, 38-47 (1985). DOI: 10.1063/1.880968

N. D. Mermin, Physics Today, 65 (12) (December 2012), pp. 12-13. DOI: 10.1063/PT.3.1803.

J. R. Pierce, Almost All About Waves, New York: Dover Books, 1974. ISBN: 0-486-45302-2.

E. M. Purcell, "Proceedings of the American Physical Society: Spontaneous Emission Probabilities at Ratio Frequencies" Physical Review. American Physical Society 69 (11–12): 681. http://pages.erau.edu/~reynodb2/colloquia/Purcell_1946_SpontaneousEmission.pdf

J. von Neumann, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, translated by Robert T. Beyer, (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, c1955). ISBN: 0-691-02893-1

A. Wegener, The Origin of Continents and Oceans, translated by John Biram, New York, Dover Publications Inc.1966, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 66-28270.

## Downloads

## Published

## How to Cite

*JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS*,

*20*, 143–168. https://doi.org/10.24297/jap.v20i.9114

## Issue

## Section

## License

Copyright (c) 2022 Jeffrey H. Boyd

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

All articles published in *Journal of Advances in Linguistics* are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.