Lowland Rice Yield as Affected by Straw Incorporation and Inorganic Fertilizer Over Cropping Seasons in Fluvisol
Keywords:Luvisol, Inorganic fertilizer, rice straw, declining grain yield, yield stabilization, mineral fertilizer equivalency.
Grain yield stabilization of lowland rice over cropping seasons was explored using different compositions of inorganic fertilizers (NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg, NPKZn, NPKCaMg, NPKCaZn and NPKCaMgZn) and straw incorporation (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 tha-1 ). No fertilizer and no straw amended plot was the control in a split-plot design with three replications laid in a Fluvisol of Guinea savanna in Centre Cote d’Ivoire. Three weeks old nursery rice variety NERICA L19 was transplanted. No significant difference of grain yield was observed between the different treatments excluding the highest yields recorded for treatments NPKMg (5.09 tha-1 ), NPKZn (5.15 tha-1 ) and NPKCaéMg (5.31 tha-1 ) compared with 12 (3.95 tha1 ) and 15 tha-1 (4.14 tha-1 ) as straw rates respectively. Grain yield declining trend was more pronounced for mineral fertilizer treatments showing twice greater depressive effect of cropping cycle compared with the straw especially, for treatments characterized by highest grain yield in the first cropping season and similar grain yields were recorded for both sources of nutrient in the third cropping cycle. Of slowness of nutrients releasing by straw, highest grain yield was expected for this soil amender within a longer period of cultivation whereas, unbalance soil micronutrients should be relevant to studious declining yield under inorganic fertilizer effect. Nevertheless, the straw rate of 12 tha-1 supplying 0.58% of NPK as mineral fertilizer equivalent can be recommended for sustaining lowland rice production in the studied agro-ecosystems unless for three cropping seasons.
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