JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a> All articles published in <em>Journal of Advances in Linguistics</em> are licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Editorial Office) (Gurpreet kaur) Thu, 30 Jan 2020 10:52:18 +0000 OJS 60 Using Fluridone Herbicide Systems for Weed Control in Texas Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) <p>Studies were conducted during 2015 through 2018 in south-central, Coastal Bend, and Southern High Plains areas of Texas to evaluate fluridone herbicide systems for weed control and cotton response. Fluridone alone at 0.17 to 0.23 kg ai ha<sup>-1</sup> followed by postemergence (POST) herbicides controlled <em>Amaranthus Palmeri</em> 82 to 100% season-long while <em>Cucumis melo</em> control ranged from 92 to 100%. Control of <em>Urochloa Texana</em> with fluridone alone ranged from 40 to 96% early-season while late-season control ranged from 37 to 96%. Fluridone plus fomesafen systems controlled <em>A. Palmeri</em>, <em>C. Melo</em>, and <em>U. Texana</em> at least 98% early season; however, late-season control of <em>A. Palmeri</em> was less than 70% while <em>C. Melo</em> control was 91% and <em>U. Texana</em> control was 80%. Adding a POST application of glyphosate to fluridone plus fomesafen improved control to at least 98% for all three weed species. Fluridone plus fluometuron combinations provided similar control to fluridone plus fomesafen. Adding glyphosate (POST) improved <em>A. Palmeri</em> control to at least 82% season-long. Cotton yields reflect the level of weed control with significantly better yields from fluridone systems compared with the weedy check. However, in the one year when the untreated was maintained weed-free, no differences in cotton yield were noted between the weed-free and any herbicide treatment.</p> James Grichar, Pete, Josh Copyright (c) 2020 James Grichar, Peter A. Dotray, Joshua McGinty Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Scientific Validity of Approaches to Solving a Number of Agricultural Problems in Azerbaijan <p>Annotation: The Republic of Azerbaijan, which translates into a physically-geographical area, a way to the eastern part of the Caucasus, where the Big and Small Caucasus, Tallinn Region, Kurinskaya oblast and Nakhichevan. The Republic is 86.6 this. Per km<sup>2</sup> or 40% of the landfill make up the oil, 60% of the landfill, and snow. He small Caucasus and its lowlands, the complex geographical location of Azerbaijan's historic lands, have been inhabited for thousands of years and have been used extensively in agriculture and livestock. The complexity of the natural conditions here and the ineffective activities of people have led to increased anthropogenic pressures and exogenous processes, which have led to catastrophic erosion processes that have developed and developed. The results of the soil-erosion study conducted in the occupied territories of the region (2004-2012) show that all types of erosion, including surface, linear, silt, grass, as a result of the complex geological and geomorphological situation of the Karabakh region and the combined impact of anthropogenic pressure. Wind and military erosion have developed in a wide range and are measured by the following average statistics. Goranboy-40.9%; Tartar - 45.0%; Aghdam - 31.3%; Barda - 23.2%, Yevlakh - 26.4%; Kelbajar - 52.4%; Beylagan - 19.8%; Aghjabadi - 15.7%; Fizuli - 45.7%; Gabriel - 63.3%; Zinc - 57.7%; Qubatly - 44.0%; Lachin - 48.0%; Serum-20.9%; Upper Karabakh - 37.0%, which means that 884,000 ha of agricultural land is in danger of being out of crop rotation.</p> RAE. Z. H. Aliyev, A. B. Jafarov Copyright (c) 2020 RAE. Z. H. Aliyev, A. B. Jafarov Thu, 30 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Insect Pollination on the Yield of Sesamum Indicum (Pedaliaceae) in Maroua-Cameroon <p>From July to October 2015 and 2018 at Maroua, <em>Sesamum indicum</em> flowers were observed to determine the reproductive system, specific richness, relative frequency, and impact of the insects on the yields. 7800 and 4560 flower clusters for each studied were labeled and divided into two treatments, differentiated according to the presence or absence of protection against insect’s activities. Observations were made on free-pollinated <em>S. indicum</em> flowers from September to October 2015 and 2018. The sesame is a mixed pollination plant, and the specific richness of the flowering insects was 19 species. The insects foraged the flowers of the sesame from 7:00 am to 4:00 pm, with the peak of the activity of the set of visits of them located between 9:00 am, and 10:00 am (28.59 %). These insects developed and elaborated behavior when they collected the nectar and pollen. Free-pollination produced more yield than pollination restricted with gauze bags. The influence of the insects estimated at 50.84 %, 17.22 %, 58.77 %, and 09.55 % for the fruiting rate, the number of seeds/fruit, the percentage of the average weight of seeds, and the percentage of normal seeds respectively. This study provided some knowledge about the insect’s diversity of this Pedaliaceae, which can be exploited to improve fruit production. In order to improve the yield of <em>S. indicum</em>, pollinators could be protected by rational pest management tactics. Pesticide treatments should be done in the late afternoon to protect the pollinators for high seed yield or spray at a time of day when crop flowers are closed.</p> Joseph Blaise Pando, Denis Djonwangwé, Olivier Balti Moudelsia, Fernand-Nestor Tchuenguem Fohouo, Joseph Lebel Tamesse Copyright (c) 2020 Joseph Blaise Pando, Denis Djonwangwé, Olivier Balti Moudelsia, Fernand-Nestor Tchuenguem Fohouo, Joseph Lebel Tamesse Fri, 06 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preliminary in Vitro Investigations on The Inhibitory Activity of The Original Dietary Supplement Oxidal® on Pathogenic Bacterial Strains <p>The antimicrobial action of the dietary supplement Oxidal® was tested using the classic Bauer and Kirby agar-gel diffusion method. Clinical and reference strains of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> were used in the studies.&nbsp;The tested dietary supplement showed a well-pronounced inhibitory effect against the microbial strains commensurable with that of the broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent Enrofloxacin and showed even higher activity than the broad spectrum antibiotic Thiamphenicol. The proven inhibitory effect of the tested dietary supplement against the examined pathogenic bacteria is in accordance with the established clinical effectiveness standards for antimicrobial agents.</p> Prof. Teodora P. Popova, Toshka Petrova, Ignat Ignatov, Stoil Karadzhov Copyright (c) 2020 Prof. Teodora P. Popova, Toshka Petrova, Ignat Ignatov, Stoil Karadzhov Mon, 30 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Allelopathic Effect of Chrysanthemum Procumentens on the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Beans Phaseolus Vulgaris <p>The present study was undertaken to assess the allelopathic effect of <em>Chrysanthemum procumentens</em> in relation to germination and growth of bean seedling. <em>C. procumentens</em> reduced germination and suppressed early seedling growth of beans. With increase in extract concentration from 20 mg ml<sup>-1</sup> to 60 mg ml<sup>-1</sup>, a gradual decrease in seed germination evaluated by reduction in the concentration of biomolecules such as total protein, total soluble sugar and amylase activities; and increase in the activities of hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, Lipases and Arginase occurred. The longest seedling root and shoot lengths were recorded on day 1 at 20 mg ml<sup>-1</sup> extract concentration while the shortest seedling root and shoot length were recorded on day 6 at 80 mg ml<sup>-1</sup> extract concentrations. It was noted that the reduction in germination and suppression of seedling growth observed in this study were concentration and time dependent. The result suggested that <em>C. procumentens</em> had good allelopathic potential which reduces germination and plant growth.</p> Kemi Akinwunmi, Esther Odunsi, Chizi Amadi Copyright (c) 2020 Kemi Akinwunmi, Esther Odunsi, Chizi Amadi Sun, 19 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Use of the Premix of Atrazine, Bicyclopyrone, S-Metolachlor, and Mesotrione for Weed Control in Corn (Zea mays L.) <p>Field studies were conducted under conventional tillage from 2014 through the 2018 growing seasons in central, south-central, and the Panhandle regions of Texas to determine corn tolerance and weed efficacy of the four-way premix of atrazine plus bicyclopyrone plus mesotrione plus <em>S</em>-metolachlor (hereafter referred to as ABMS).&nbsp; No corn injury was noted at any location with any ABMS dose or application timing.&nbsp; Preemergence (PRE) applications of ABMS at 2.41 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> controlled Palmer amaranth (<em>Amaranthus palmeri </em>S. Wats.) 73 to 100% while smellmelon (<em>Cucumis melo </em>L.) control was 100%.&nbsp; Annual sunflower (<em>Helianthus annuus </em>L.) control with ABMS at 2.41 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> was 86% while a split application applied PRE followed by a postemergence (POST) application provided 99% control.&nbsp; Texas millet (<em>Urochloa texana</em> Buckl.) control with ABMS applied PRE ranged from 12 to 35% while broadleaf signalgrass (<em>Brachiaria</em> <em>platyphylla</em> [Griseb.] Nash) control was 100%.&nbsp; Browntop panicum [<em>Urochloa fasciculate</em> (Sw.) R. Webster] control with a PRE application of ABMS at 2.41 kg ai ha<sup>-1</sup> was <u>&lt;</u> 82% while jungle rice [<em>Echinochloa colona</em> (L.) Link] control was 98%.&nbsp; Control of a kochia (Kochia<em> scoparia</em> L.) with PRE applications of ABMS at 2.41 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> was 95% while the split rate of 1.2 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> applied PRE and POST provided 99% control.&nbsp; Corn yields were variable but in most instances all herbicide treatments improved yield over the untreated check. &nbsp;Excellent control of broadleaf weeds was observed with ABMS; however, annual grass control can be variable, especially with large-seeded annual grasses such as Texas millet.</p> James, Scott, Matt, Paul, Jourdan Copyright (c) 2020 W. James Grichar, Scott A. Nolte, Matthew E. Matocha, Paul Baumann, Jourdan M. Bell Sun, 19 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Activity of the Original Dietary Supplement Oxidal® in Vitro <p>Studies have been conducted to determine the antibacterial effect of Oxidal<sup>®</sup> and anolyte against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Escherichia coli</em>. The bacterial strains tested showed high sensitivity to the dietary supplement Oxidal<sup>®</sup> and to anolyte, as well as to the control antibiotic Thiamphenicol. The mean MPC<sub>50</sub> values of Oxidal<sup>®</sup> for Gram-positive bacteria <em>S. aureus</em> (0.21 ± 0.13 mg/ml) were lower than those for Gram-negative <em>E. coli</em> (0.55 ± 0.24 mg/ml). The dose that fully suppressed <em>S. aureus</em> growth was 0.86 ± 0.52 mg/ml, while for <em>E. coli</em> this dose was significantly higher - 2.40 ± 0.80 mg/ml (P&lt;0.05). For the antibiotic Thiamphenicol, the results were opposite - the mean MPC<sub>50</sub> values for <em>E. coli</em> (2.40 ± 0.80) were lower than those for <em>S. aureus</em> (3.71 ± 2.86). Under the influence of 10% Oxidal<sup>®</sup> solution, the amount of viable <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em> decreased by more than 30% over the untreated control after 20 min. After 45 minutes, only 37% of <em>S. aureus</em> cells and 19% of <em>E. coli</em> cells developed upon cultivation, and after 90 minutes of exposure, about 20% of the cells of the microorganisms understudy of both species remained viable. The fresh anolyte and the one stored for 1 year inactivated <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em> for 2 min in a suspension at a density of 10<sup>6</sup> cells/ml.</p> Prof. Teodora P. Popova Copyright (c) 2020 Prof. Teodora P. Popova Sun, 19 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Innovative Design of Intelligent Detection Equipment for Growth Information of Facilityhorticultural Crops <p>&nbsp;Intelligent equipment technology for facility horticulture is an urgent need for the development of modern facility agriculture.The intelligent monitoring equipment for greenhouse crop growth information can comprehensively monitor the nutrition, growth and environmental information of crops, and provide a scientific basis for the optimal regulation and control of water, fertilizer and environment in the greenhouse. It is a key equipment for the intelligentization of facility horticulture. This research aims at different growth stages In accordance with the testing needs of different plant-shaped crops and the operational needs of the unstructured environment in the greenhouse, we developed wheeled and tracked crop growth and environmental information monitoring systems that can autonomously cruise in the greenhouse;at the same time, in order to meet the detection needs of large-plant crops, a cantilever type crop information monitoring system has also been developed. This system suspends the multi-sensor detection system through the gimbal and installs it on the orbit track laid on the greenhouse truss. Because the detection position is high, it is realized the cruise monitor of greenhouse plants such as cucumber and tomato. In order to achieve comprehensive detection of crop growth information, a multi-sensor detection system for horticultural crop information has been developed. It uses visible-near-infrared binocular multi-spectral cameras, infrared detection sensors, laser ranging sensors, ambient temperature and humidity and light sensors. through the multiple sensor information fusion, implements the facilities horticulture crops nutrition, growth and the comprehensive monitoring of environmental information. Good application effect has been achieved.</p> Yu Qiang Ruan, Xiao Dong Zhang, Hanping Mao, Hong Yan Gao, Xin Zhang, QinLin li Copyright (c) 2020 Yu Qiang Ruan, Xiao Dong Zhang, Hanping Mao, Hong Yan Gao, Xin Zhang, QinLin li Fri, 01 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Southern Sandbur (Cenchrus echinatus L.) Control in Bermudagrass Pastures with Indaziflam Herbicide Systems <p>Field studies were conducted during 2019 growing season in north-central, south-central, and the Coastal Bend areas of Texas to evaluate indaziflam herbicide systems for southern sandbur control and Coastal bermudagrass tolerance. Indaziflam caused no bermudagrass stunting at any location when applied preemergence (PRE) at 0.04 to 0.07 kg ai ha<sup>-1</sup>. Glyphosate at 0.35 kg ae ha<sup>-1</sup> caused bermudagrass stunting which ranged from 16 to 65% when evaluated 3 to 5 weeks after application; however, when evaluated at the end of the growing season, no bermudagrass stunting was evident when compared with the untreated check. Southern sandbur control with indaziflam, when evaluated 28 to 32 weeks after the initial indaziflam PRE application, ranged from 85 to 99% in north-central Texas, 65 to 95% in south-central Texas, and 95 to 100% in the Coastal Bend region. Southern sandbur control with pendimethalin PRE system ranged from 74 to 100%, 11 to 85%, and 100% in those regions, respectively. Indaziflam represents a safe option for forage and hay producers in Texas to control southern sandbur. </p> Scott A Nolte, James R Jackson, Joshua A McGinty, Zachary Howard, W James Grichar Copyright (c) 2020 Scott Nolte, James, Josh, Zach, James Grichar Mon, 11 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of insect pollinators on yields of Glycine max L. (Fabaceae) at Yaoundé (Cameroon) Douniaa, Clautin Ningatoloumb, Chantal Doukaa, Elono Azang Pierre Stephana, Amada Brahimc, Joseph Lebel Tamessea, Fernand-Nestor Tchuenguem Fohouod <p>To appreciate the impact of insect pollinators on the pod, seeds, and seed weight yields of <em>Glycine max,</em> the pollinating activities of flowering insects were studied in Yaoundé, during the two mild, rainy seasons in 2016 and 2017 (March-June). Observations were made on 45 to 20400 flowers per treatment. The flowers were subjected to different treatments: Free flowers (Treatment 1), bagged flowers (treatment 2), castrated and free flowers (treatment 3), and castrated and bagged flowers (treatment 4). Some (8695 and 3325) flowers of <em>Glycine max</em> (Fabaceae) were observed in 2016 and 2017, respectively, for the diversity and Frequency of insect visits. For results, 1527 visits of 13 insect species distributed in seven orders were recorded on <em>G. max </em>flowers. The most dominating Hymenoptera observed was <em>Apis mellifera,</em> with 40.20 % of the total insect visits. The highest number of insect pollinators harvested in the flowers of this Fabaceae was between 8h-9h. The studied insects have a positive impact on the yields of this plant. This positive impact of the pollinator insects on the yields was 26.29 %, 16.13 %, 15.02 and 4.45 % in fructification rate, number of seeds pod, the weight of seeds, and percentage of normal seeds respectively. The avoidance of pesticide treatment of plants during flowering could be a good management strategy to improve on plant yield.</p> Dounia, Clautin Ningatoloum, Chantal Doukaa, Elono Azang Pierre Stephan, Amada Brahim, Joseph Lebel Tamesse, Fernand-Nestor Tchuenguem Fohouo Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 22 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Rapid Diagnostic Grading System for Cucumber Downy Mildew Based on Visible Light - Hyperspectral Imaging System <p>Downy mildew, a kind of cucumber disease with a high spread rate and harmfulness that is more common in the world, has a great influence on the yield of cucumbers. The rapid identification of its symptoms and the rapid classification of the post-disease characters are of great significance to the rapid diagnosis of cucumber frost mold and the proper treatment of medicine after the disease. In order to quickly and accurately classify the occurrence and the degree of cucumber downy mildew, a rapid diagnosis and classification method of cucumber downy mildew based on visible light - high spectral imaging technology was proposed in this paper. In addition, the stepwise regression method and PCA were used to reduce and extract the feature information of sensitive bands. Two kinds of acquired feature information are used as the input of the model to construct the disease degree classification detection model of the SVM classification model. The model based on the stepwise regression method is used to classify and identify downy mildew and normal leaves. In this model, the accuracy of the Sigmoid kernel function classification test is the highest, reaching 95.00%, and the recognition rate of different degrees of cucumber downy mildew disease leaves as high as 93.88, which has a high classification detection accuracy. The results show that the rapid diagnosis and classification of cucumber downy mildew can be realized by using the visible light spectral imaging system combined with the automatic classification model of SVM, which provides a new method and reference for solving the problem of cucumber downy mildew in time.</p> Chunyang Yao, Xiaodong Zhang, Hanping Mao, Hongyan Gao, Qinglin Li Copyright (c) 2020 Chunyang Yao, Xiaodong Zhang, Hanping Mao, Hongyan Gao, Qinglin Li Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect on Sorghum Yield in The Semi-Arid Counties of Lower Eastern Kenya's <p>Sorghum is a key crop in Kenya's attainment of food and nutrition security. Climate is a key determinant of sorghum production under rainfed conditions. The overall objective of this study was to examine variations of sorghum yields in response to climate. This is crucial in documenting future strategic options to enhance food security in a changing climate. A longitudinal research design was used in the study. Purposive and cluster sampling techniques were used to select sorghum and climate data from lower eastern Kenya's districts covering the period 1979-2009. Association between sorghum crop yields and climate data were sought through correlation analysis, while variability in yields was determined through the coefficient of variation (CVs) and standard deviations (STDEV). There wide sorghum yield and climate variability with high CV values of up 60 % of rainfall. Kitui had the lowest variation in sorghum yields with a Standard deviation of 344.1 Kg/Ha (CV = 38.7 %) while Machakos had the highest variation with STDEV of 591.6 Kg/Ha (CV = 60.5 %). This information is useful to monitor and forecast future sorghum production under rain-fed agriculture. There is a need to continue with focused applied research to unleash sorghum's capacity to be the cornerstone of food security in Kenya.</p> Nicodemus Nyandiko Copyright (c) 2020 Nicodemus Nyandiko Fri, 03 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000