A Mathematical Graph-Theoretic Model of Single Point Mutations Associated with Sickle Cell Anemia Disease


  • Mr. Edem K. Netsey Department of Mathematics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, West Africa
  • Dr. Samuel Kakraba Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY 40475, U.S.A
  • Dr. Samuel M. Naandam Department of Mathematics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, West Africa
  • Mr. Aayire Clement Yadem Department of Applied Science (Physics), University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72205, U.S.A




Anemia–sickle cell disease (SCD), beta-globin (β-globin), hemoglobin protein (1A3N), mathematical graph-theoretic model (nested graph), mutation GLU6VAL (E6V), homozygous HbSS, unsupervised machine learning (hierarchical clustering)


Many diseases like cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia disease (SCD), among others, arise from single point mutations in the respective proteins. How a single point mutation might lead to a global devastating consequence on a protein remains an intellectual mystery. SCD is a genetic blood-related disorder resulting from mutations in the beta chain of the human hemoglobin protein (simply, β-globin), subsequently affecting the entire human body. Higher mortality and morbidity rates have been reported for patients with SCD, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical management of SCD often requires specialized interdisciplinary clinicians. SCD presents a major global burden, hence an improved understanding of how single point mutations in β-globin results in different phenotypes of SCD might offer insight into protein engineering, with potential therapeutic intervention in view. By use of mathematical modeling, we built a hierarchical (nested) graph-theoretic model for the β-globin. Subsequently, we quantified the network of interacting amino acid residues, representing them as molecular system of three distinct stages (levels) of interactions. Using our nested graph model, we studied the effect of virtual single point mutations in β-globin that results in varying phenotypes of SCD, visualized by unsupervised machine learning algorithm, the dendrogram.


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Author Biographies

Mr. Edem K. Netsey, Department of Mathematics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, West Africa

First author of the manuscript

Dr. Samuel M. Naandam, Department of Mathematics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, West Africa

Third author of the manuscript

Mr. Aayire Clement Yadem, Department of Applied Science (Physics), University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72205, U.S.A

3rth author


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How to Cite

Netsey , E. K. ., Kakraba, S., Naandam, S. . M. ., & Yadem, A. C. . (2021). A Mathematical Graph-Theoretic Model of Single Point Mutations Associated with Sickle Cell Anemia Disease. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, 9, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v9i.9109