Porous Media in the Simulation of Greenhouse Crops Using the Naïves Bayes EM Algorithm





Models of computation, Bayes methods, Numerical analysis, Digital Simulation


The porous media approach has become more popular thus, it solves the equations of motion and energy numerically and therefore obtains detailed distributions of temperature and airspeed. However, those models are not allowed to forecast the relationships between the porosity of the volume of the crop with respect to the variables that comprise the climate in natural ventilation greenhouses at the same time in terms of probability. A porous media model of the crop and its approximations were developed and analyzed through non-supervised Bayesian Networks clustering, with the aim of determining the influence of porous media in function to the density crop, over the climate conditions in a natural ventilation greenhouse. Also, a naïve Bayes model unsupervised by the EM algorithm, initialized with random parameters was developed. The resulting model maximized the likelihood of the training data set. The relationships between the pressure drops in the flow limits at the crop were established. Porosity is directly influenced by humidity, temperature and slowly to CO2 concentration. Solar radiation, speed air and slowly the height are inversely influenced with the porosity. Naïve Bayes EM application to a CFD model has been providing a greater understanding of the interactions between the variables.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Guillermo Alfonso De la Torre Gea, Institute of Research and Development of Technologies Garman A.C.

Institute for Research and Technology Development GARMAN A.C.Av. Andamaxei 64-40, Corregidora, Qro., Mexico. C.P. 76910.


Kittas, C., Katsoulasand, N., Bartzanas, T.: “Effect Of Vents’ Opening And Insect Screen On Greenhouse Ventilation.” International Conference “Passive And Low Energy Cooling 59 For The Built Environment”, May 2005, Santorini, Greece.

Teitel, M., Tanny, J.: “Heat Fluxes and Airflow Patterns Through Roof Windows In A Naturally Ventilated Enclosure”. Flow, Turbulence, and Combustion, 2005, 74, (1), pp. 21-47.

Khaoua, S.A.O., Bournet, P.E., Migeon, C., Boulard, T., Chasse´Riaux, G.: “Analysis Of Greenhouse Ventilation Efficiency Based On Computational Fluid Dynamics”. Biosystems Engineering, 2006, 95 (1), pp. 83–98.

Doi:10.1016/J.Biosystemseng.2006.05.004 Se—Structures And Environment

Campen, J.B.: “Vapour removal from the greenhouse using forced ventilation when applying a thermal screen”. Acta Hort. 2008, (ISHS) 8, (1): pp. 863-868

Kacira, M., Sase, S., Ikeguchi, A., Ishii, M., Giacomelli, G., Sabeh, N.: “Effect of vent configuration and wind speed on three-dimensional temperature distributions in a naturally ventilated multi-span greenhouse by wind tunnel experiments”. Acta Hort. 2008 (ISHS) 801, pp: 393-401.DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.801.41

Kim, K., Jeong-Yeol Y., Hyuck-Jin, K., Jin-Hee H., Jung Eek, S., Sang-Woon, N., Giacomelli G.A., In-Bok, L. “3-D CFD Analysis of relative humidity distribution in a greenhouse with a fog cooling system and refrigerative dehumidifiers”. Biosystems Engineering, 2008, 100, pp: 245 – 255.

Molina, F.D., Fatnassi, H., Boulard, T., Roy, J. C., Valera, D. L. “Comparison of finite element and finite volume methods for simulation of natural ventilation in greenhouses.” Computers and electronics in agriculture, 2010, 72 (2), pp: 69 – 86.

Sun, H., Yang, J., Wang, X. “CFD Based determination of crop transpiration in local greenhouses in eastern China”. Bioinformatics And Biomedical Engineering, 4th International Conference, 2010, pp.: 1 – 4. D.O.I.: 10.1109/Icbbe.2010.5514810

Chen, Q. “Ventilation performance prediction for buildings: A method overview and recent applications”. Building and Environment, 2009, 44(4), pp.: 848-858.

Bournet, P.E., OuldKhaoua, S.A., Boulard, T., Migeon, C., Chassériaux, G. “Effect of roof and side opening combinations on the ventilation of a greenhouse using computer simulation. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2007, 50(1), pp.: 201−212.

Dayan, J., Dayan, E., Strassberg, Y., Presnov, E. “Simulation and control of ventilation rates in greenhouses”. Mathematics and Computers In Simulation, 2004, 65 (1-2), pp.: 3 - 17. DOI: 10.1016/j.matcom.2003.09.017

Roy, J.C., Vidal, C., Fargues, J., Boulard, T. “CFD based determination of temperature and humidity at leaf surface”. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2008, 61(2), pp.: 202 – 212.

Majdoubi, H., Boulard, T., Hanafi, A., Bekkaoui, A., Fatnassi, H., Demrati, H., Nya, M., Borden, L. “Natural ventilation performance of a large greenhouse equipped with insect screens”. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2007, 50(2), pp.: 641−650.

Majdoubi, H., Boulard, T., Fatnassi, H., Bouirden, L. “Airflow and microclimate patterns in a one-hectare canary type greenhouse: An experimental and CFD assisted study”. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2009, 149, pp.: 1050–1062.

Impron, I., Hemming, S., Botb, G.P.A. “Simple greenhouse climate model as a design tool for greenhouses in tropical lowland”. Biosystems Engineering, 2007, 9(1), pp.: 79 - 89. DOI: 10.1016/J.Biosystemseng.

Demrati, H., Boulard, T., Bekkaoui, A., Bouirden, L. “Natural ventilation and microclimatic performance of a large-scale banana greenhouse”. J. Agric. Engng Res., 2001, 80 (3), pp.: 261-271.

Sapounas, A.A., Nikita-Martzopoulou, Ch., Martzopoulos, G. “Aspects of CFD modeling of fan and pad evaporative cooling system in a greenhouse with tomato crop”. Acta Horticulture 801, 2007. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.801.117

Bartzanas T, Tadj N, Draoui B, Kittas C. “Numerical and experimental analysis of convective heat transfer in a heated greenhouse”. Acta Hort., 2008; 801, pp.:847-854.

Baxevanou, C., Bartzanas, T., Fidaros, D. Kittas, C. “Solar radiation distribution in a tunnel greenhouse”. Acta Hort., 2007, 801, pp.:855-862.

Endalew, A.M., Hertog, M., Gebreslasie-Gebrehiwot, M., Baelmans, M., Ramon, H., Nicolaï, B. M., Verboven, P. “Modeling airflow within model plant canopies using an integrated approach”. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2010, 66, (1), pp.: 1 – 5.

Fidaros, D.K., Baxevanou, C.A., Bartzanas, T., Kittas, C. “Numerical simulation of thermal behavior of a ventilated arc greenhouse during a solar day”. Renewable Energy, 2010, 35(7), pp.: 1380-1386.

Norton, T., Da-Wen S., Grant, J. Fallon, R.V.D. “Applications of CFD in the modeling and design of ventilation systems in the agricultural industry: A review”. Bioresource Technology, 2007, 98, pp.: 2386–2414.

Borunda, M., Jaramillo, O. A., Reyes, A., Ibargüengoytia, P.H. “Bayesian networks in renewable energy systems: A bibliographical survey”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, 62, pp.: 32–45.

De la Torre-Gea, G., Delfín-Santisteban, O., Torres-Pacheco, I., Soto-Zarazúa, G., Guevara-González, R., Rico-García, E. “Bayesian networks applied in a CFD model of the crop in a greenhouse". Agrociencia, 2014, 48 (3), pp.: 307 - 319.

Friedman, N. “The Bayesian structural EM algorithm”. In G. F. Cooper & S. Moral, Eds., Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, 1998, pp.: 129–138.

Garrote, L., Molina, M., Medeiros, L. “Probabilistic forecasts using Bayesian networks calibrated with deterministic Rainfall-Runoff models”. In Vasiliev et al. (eds.), Extreme Hydrological Events: New Concepts for Security, Springer, 2007, pp.:173-183.

Ortiz-Vazquez, I.C., Pérez-Robles, J.F., Fernandez-Loyola, R., Pérez-Brito, J.F., and De La Torre-Gea, G.A. “A multivariable computational fluid dynamics analysis method based in Bayesian networks applied in a bioreactor. Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, 2015, 6(1), pp.: 10 – 17.



How to Cite

De la Torre Gea, G. A. (2019). Porous Media in the Simulation of Greenhouse Crops Using the Naïves Bayes EM Algorithm. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE, 10, 1873-1885. https://doi.org/10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8115