Boron induces seed germination and seedling growth of Hordeum vulgare L. under Nacl stress


  • Saud A. Alamri King Saud University
  • Manzer H Siddiqui King Saud University
  • Mutahhar Y. Al-Khaishani King Saud University
  • Hayssam M. Ali King Saud University



Reactive Oxygen Species, Germination, Salinity, Hordeum Vulgare L, Boron Toxicity


Boron (B), an essential micronutrient, helps the plants to complete their life cycle successfully. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to study (1) the role of B in seed germination and seedling growth, (2) the toxicity effect of B in seed germination and seedling growth and (3) the role of B in tolerance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. ‘Bakore’) to NaCl stress. Under NaCl stress and non-stress conditions, application of high levels of B (100 µM) decreased parameters of germination (G%, VI, GI and MGT), growth (RL, SL, RFW, SFW, RDW and SDW), except the accumulation of Pro and MDA in barley seedlings. Also, a fluorescence study reveals that production of ROS (H2O2 and O2 •—) and non-viable cells increased in roots of barley seedlings treated with NaCl and high dose of B. An alteration in anatomical structure of barley seedlings was observed with the application of NaCl and high dose of B. However, a low concentration of B (50 µM) proved best and increased all germination and growth traits of barley seedlings by increasing further accumulation of Pro. Also, 50 µM of B significantly increased the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, b and total Chl) and deceased formation of ROS and viable cells in roots. Therefore, concluded that sufficient dose of B could be beneficial for barley plant in improving the tolerance to NaCl stress.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Saud A. Alamri, King Saud University

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 2455, Saudi Arabia

Mutahhar Y. Al-Khaishani, King Saud University

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 2455, Saudi Arabia

Hayssam M. Ali, King Saud University

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 2455, Saudi Arabia


Ardic M, Sekmen AH, Tokur S, Ozdemir F, Turkan I (2009). Antioxidant responses of chickpea plants subjected to boron toxicity. Plant Biol., 11:328–338.

Bastías E, González-Moro MB, González-Murua C (2015). Combined effects of excess boron and salinity on root histology of Zea mays L. amylacea from the Lluta Valley. IDESIA (Arica), 33:9–20.

Bell RW, McLay LD, Plaskett D, Dell B, Loneragan JF (1989). Germination and vigour of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) seed from plants grown with and without boron. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 40: 273–279.

Cervilla LM, Blasco B, R?os J, Romero L, Ruiz J (2007). Oxidative stress and antioxidants in tomato Solanum lycopersicum plants subjected to boron toxicity. Ann. Bot., 100:747–756.

Corrales I, Poschenrieder C, Barceló J (2008). Boron-induced amelioration of aluminium toxicity in a monocot and a dicot species. J. Plant Physiol., 165:504–513.

Cresswell, CF, Nelson H (1973). The Influence of boron on the RNA level, 6-amylase activity, and level of sugars in germinating Themeda triandra Forsk Seed. Ann. Bot., 37 (3):427–438.

Dhindsa RS, Plumb?Dhindsa P, Thorpe TA (1981). Leaf senescence: correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. J. Exp. Bot., 32:93–101.

Farag M, Fang ZM (2014). Effect of boron toxicity stress on seed germination, root elongation and early seedling development of watermelon Citrulluslanatus Thumb. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 21:3313–3325.

Fitzpatrick KL, Reid RJ (2009). The involvement of aquaglyceroporins in transport of boron in barley roots. Plant Cell Environ., 32:1357–1365.

Goldbach H, Yu Q, Wingender R, Schulz M, Wimmer M, Findeklee P, Baluska F (2001). Repid response reactions of roots to boron deprivation. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 164:173–181.

Matthews S, Khajeh-Hosseini M (2007). Length of the lag period of germination and metabolic repair explain vigour differences in seed lots of maize (Zea mays). Seed Sci. Technol., 35:200–212.

Vashisth A., Nagarajan S. (2010). Effect on germination and early growth characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds exposed to static magnetic field. J. Plant Physiol., 167:149–156.

Harris K. D. Puvanitha S. (2018). Influence of foliar application of boron and copper on growth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv ‘Thilina’). J. Agricult. Sci., DOI:

Heath RL, Packer L (1968). Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts. I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arc. Biochem. Biophys. 125:189–198

Herrera-Rodríguez MB, Gonza´lez-Fontes A, Rexach J, Camacho-Cristo´bal JJ, Maldonado JM, Navarro Gochicoa MT (2010). Role of boron in vascular plants and response mechanisms to boron stresses. Plant Stress 4:115– 122

Iyer S, Caplan A (1998). Products of proline catabolism can induce osmotically regulated genes in rice. Plant Physiol 116: 203–211

Jehangir IA, Wani SH, Bhat MA, Hussain A, Raja W, Haribhushan A (2017). Micronutrients for crop production: Role of boron. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 6:5347–5353.

Keren R, Bingham FT (1985). Boron in water, soils, and plants. Adv. Soil Sci., 1:230–276.

Khan MN, Siddiqui MH, Mohammad F, Khan MMA, Naeem M (2007). Salinity induced changes in growth, enzyme activities, photosynthesis, proline accumulation and yield in linseed genotypes. World J. Agri. Sci., 3:685– 695.

Kyle DJ (1987). The biochemical basis for photoinhibition of photosystem II. In: Kyle DJ, Osmond CB, Artzen CJ (eds) Photoinhibition. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 197–226

Liu P, Yang PA (2000). Effects of molybdenum and boron on membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous protective systems of soybean leaves. Acta Bot. Sin., 42:461–466

Ma A, Lu Q, Zhang M (2015). Influence of NaCl and NaHCO3 upon Salix Sungkianica seed germination and seedling growth. Mol. Soil Biol., 6:1–6.

Mahasuk P, Kullik AS, Iqbal CM, Möllers C (2017). Effect of boron on microspore embryogenesis and direct embryo to plant conversion in Brassica napus (L.). Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Cult., 130:443–447.

Matoh T (1997). Boron in plant cell walls. Plant Soil 193:59–70.

Matysik J, Alia, Bhalu B, Mohanty P (2002). Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Curr. Sci., 82:525–532.

Nable RO, Banuelos GS, Paull JG (1997). Boron toxicity. Plant Soil 193:181–198

O'neill MA, Ishii T, Albersheim P, Darvill AG (2004). Rhamnogalacturonan II: structure and function of a borate cross-linked cell wall pectic polysaccharide. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 55:109–139.

Reid R (2007). Update on boron toxicity and tolerance in plants. In: Xu F, Goldbach HE, Brown PH, Bell RW, Fujiwara T, Hunt CD, Goldberg S, Shi L (eds) Advances in plant and animal nutrition. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 83–90.

Rerkasem B, Bell RW, Loneragan JF (1989). Effects of seed and soil boron on early seedling growth of black and green gram (Vignamunga and V. radiata). In: van Beusichem ML (ed) Plant Nutrition - Physiology and

Applications, pp. 281– 285. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publish- ers. Rerkasem B, Bell RW, Lodkaew S, Loneragan JF (1997). Relationship of seed boron concentration to germination and growth of soybean (Glycine max). Nutr. Cyc. Agroecosys. 48:217–223.

Rodriguez-Serrano M, Romero-Puertas MC, Pazmino DM, Testillano PS, Risueno MC, del Rio LA, Sandalio LM

(2009). Cellular response of pea plants to cadmium toxicity: cross talkbetween reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and calcium. Plant Physiol. 150:229–243.

Siddiqui MH, Al-Whaibi MH, Sakran AM, Ali HM, Basalah MO., Faisal M, Alatar A, Al-Amri AA (2013). Calciuminduced amelioration of boron toxicity in radish. J. Plant Growth Regul., 32:61–71.

Siddiqui MH, Mohammad F, Khan MN (2009). Morphological and physio-biochemical characterization of Brassica juncea L. Czern. &Coss. genotypes under salt stress. J. Plant Interat., 4:67–80.

Truernit E, Haseloff J (2008). A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy. Plants Methods, 4:15

Xuan H, Streif J, Pfeffer H, Dannel F, Romheld V, Bangerth F (2001). Effect of pre-harvest boron application on the incidence of CA storage related disorders in ‘Conference’ pears. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol., 76:133–137.

Yau SK, Ryan J (2008) Boron toxicity tolerance in crops: a viable alternative to soil amelioration. Crop Sci., 48:854– 865.

Tarpey MM, Wink DA, Grisham MB (2004). Methods for detection of reactive metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen: in vitro and in vivo considerations. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 286:431R–444.

Bates LS, Walden RP, Teare ID (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207.

Tao K.L., Zheng G.H. (1990). Seed Vigour. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 268 (in Chinese).




How to Cite

Alamri, S. A., Siddiqui, M. H., Al-Khaishani, M. Y., & Ali, H. M. (2018). Boron induces seed germination and seedling growth of Hordeum vulgare L. under Nacl stress. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE, 8(1), 1224–1234.