Diltiazem-tetraiodide bismuthate (III) based PVC membrane for selective determination of diltiazem hydrochloride
Keywords:Tetraiodido bismuthate (III) , Selectivity coefficient, Nernstian response, Ion-pairing agent, Diltiazem hydrochloride
A new coated-wire electrode based on PVC membrane plasticized with dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and containing the diltiazem-tetraiodido bismuthate (III) ion association coated on a silver wire was constructed and used for potentiometric determination of diltiazem hydrochloride. The electrode performance was characterized and optimized according to the following experimental criteria: membrane composition, soaking time, working pH range, and response time. The interference caused by different species was investigated as well. The best membrane composition was found to be 49.75% of PVC and DOP, 0.5% ion pair. This sensor showed a linear response with a good Nernstian slope of 57.60±1.38 mV/decade over the concentration range
5.0×10-5 – 2.50×10-2 M, the detection limit was 2.88×10-5 M, and it was usable within a wide pH range of
2.5–8.0. The electrode showed a fast response time (18 sec), with a relative long lifetime (2.4 months, 2 h a day). The isothermal coefficient (dE°/dT) of the electrode was calculated and found to be 5.36×10-4 V/℃ within
20 – 80℃, which exhibits a good thermal stability. The coted-wire electrode was successfully applied for the potentiometric determination of diltiazem hydrochloride both in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. The dissolution test of the drug was carried out as well.
K. Vytřas, The use of ion-selective electrodes in the determination of drug substances, Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis, 7(7), 789-812, 1989. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2490089/.
K. N. Mikhelson, Ion-selective electrodes, Springer Heidelberg, New York, 2013.
H. Hirata, K. Date, Copper(I) sulphide-impregnated silicone rubber membranes as selective electrodes for copper(II) ions, Talanta, 17, 883-887, 1970. https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(70)80185-0.
H. Freiser, Ion-selective electrodes in analytical chemistry, vol 2, Plenum Press, New York, 1980.
A. Brayfield, Martindale: The complete Drug Reference, 38th ed, Pharmaceutical Press, 2014.
N. Sultana, M.S. Arayne, N. Shafi, A. Naz, S. Naz, and H. Shamshad, A RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of diltiazem and quinolones in bulk, formulations and human serum, Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 54(4), 358–362, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072009000400007.
N. Shafi, F.A. Siddiqui, N. Sultana, and M.S. Arayne, Concurrent determination of diltiazem, lisinopril, captopril, and enalapril in dosage formulations and in human serum by liquid chromatographic technique, Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, 38(15), 1466–1473, 2015.
V.A. Chatpalliwar, P.K. Porwal, and N. Upmanyu, Validated gradient stability indicating HPLC method for determining diltiazem hydrochloride and related substances in bulk drug and novel tablet formulation, Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2(3), 226–237, 2012. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29403747/.
M. Arafat, Simple HPLC validated method for the determination of diltiazem hydrochloride in human plasma, International journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, 6(9), 213-216, 2014.
K. H. Abu-Shandi, HPLC method development for the simultaneous determination and validation of diltiazem hydrochloride and its major metabolite desacetyl diltiazem hydrochloride, Der Pharma Chemica, 6(6), 358-365, 2014.
B. Kumar, B. Rajkamal, and B. Chandramowli, A validated RP-HPLC method for the determination of diltiazem in raw material and pharmaceutical dosage form, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 10(6), 487-491, 2018.
M. A. Souza, C. Pereira, and G. A. Pianetti, Development and validation of a stability indicating HPLC method to determine diltiazem hydrochloride in tablets and compounded capsules, Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 53(3), 2017. https://doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902017000300041.
M. A. Omar, O. H. Abdelmageed, A.A. Aldelgaber, and S. F. Saleh, Spectrophotometric determination of some calcium channel blockers using sulfochlorophenol-S, bromopyrogallol red, eriochromecyanine-R and pyrocatechoil violet, Natural Science, 5(4), 514-525, 2013.
R. Shrivastava, Spectrophotometric determination of diltiazem in pharmaceutical and in-vivo samples with Pd(II), International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 4(12), 4676–4681, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.4(12).4676-81.
G. Sandip, J. Santosh, S. Geeta, and T. Ashpak. Zero order and area under curve spectrophotometric methods for determination of diltiazem hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation, Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 5, 1265–1270, 2015.
C. A. R. Salamanca-Neto, M. L. Felsner, A. Galli, and E. R. Sartori, In-house validation of a totally aqueous voltammetric method for determination of diltiazem hydrochloride, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 837, 159-166, 2019. https://www.x-mol.net/paper/article/5411927.
C. A. R. Salamanca-Neto, J. Scremin, J. T. Moraes, and E. R. Sartori, Voltammetric determination of diltiazem employing diamond electrode, XXI Brazilian Symposium of Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis, 2017.
M. R. Ganjali, T. Razavi, R. Dinarvand, S. Riahi, and P. Norouzi, New diltiazem potentiometric membrane sensor stands on theoretical calculations as a useful device for diltiazem hydrochloride analysis in pharmaceutical formulation and urine, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 3(11), 1543-1558, 2008.
Y. Umezawa, K. Umezawa, and H. Sato, Selectivity coefficients for ion-selective electrodes: recommended methods for reportingvalues, Pure & Applied Chemistry, 67(3), 507-518, 1995.
E. Bakker, P. Bühlmann, E. Pretsch, Carrier-based ion-selective electrodes and bulk optodes. 1. General characteristics, Chemical Reviews, 97(8), 3083-3132, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr940394a.
J. Koryta, K. Štulík, Ion-Selective electrodes, 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1983.
H. Freiser, Ion-Selective Electrodes in Analytical Chemistry, vol 1, Plenum Press, New York. 1978.
L. I. Antropov, Theoretical Electrochemistry, Mir Publisher, Moscow, 1972.
J. N. Miller, J. C. Miller, Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry, 5th ed, Pearson Education Ltd, Edinburg Gate, Harlow, 2005.
United States Pharmacopeia 43, 2020.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Ryad Kassab, Mahmoud Aboudan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
All articles published in Journal of Advances in Linguistics are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.