JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN CHEMISTRY KHALSA PUBLICATIONS en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN CHEMISTRY 2321-807X <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a> All articles published in <em>Journal of Advances in Linguistics</em> are licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Improving Quality of Water from Murchison Bay using Clay from Chelel, Kapchorwa District, Ugandao <p>Pollution resulting from increased human activities is threatening Lake Victoria, its effects are characterized by eutrophication, high turbidity, pH, iron(II) concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study we have investigated the effect of Fe-montmorillonite clay from Chelel on turbidity, pH, concentration of iron, total suspended soils, total nutrients and COD of water sampled from Murchison bay watershed of Nakivubo channel south of Kampala. Varying amounts of clay powder was vigorously stirred with water samples for 5 minutes, filtered using Whitman paper at ambient temperatures. The optimum concentration of clay of 0.4gl<sup>-1</sup> was found to produce 73.5<u>+</u> 2% fall in COD indicating elimination of microbes and organic waste. The pH of water became 6.3<u>+</u> 0.2 showing that impurities had been bound to clay. The turbidity of filtrate dropped to 15.7<u>+</u> 0.3NTUshowing that clarity of water was improved by adsorption of suspended solids to clay minerals. The concentration of iron(II) fell from 3.7 <u>+</u> 0.3 to 2.5<u>+</u> 0.2mgl<sup>-1</sup> indicating fairly high extent of heavy metal removal from Murchison bay (MB) waters. The TSS and nutrients in MB water&nbsp;&nbsp; also decreased greatly when clay was stirred with water at ambient temperatures. The available data can be relied on to recommend use of this clay in treatment of waste water and/or sewage from Kampala. Further studies on combined use of clays with alums, zeolites and/or lime need to be carried out.&nbsp;</p> Mukasa-Tebandeke I. Z Karume I Wasajja H. Z Nankinga R Copyright (c) 2020 Mukasa-Tebandeke, I.Z, Karume I, Wasajja H.Z, Nankinga R 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 17 1 29 10.24297/jac.v17i.8537 Characterization of a Ag+-Selective Electrode Based on Naphthalimide Derivative as Ionophore <p>A naphthalimide derivative has been explored as neutral ionophore for Ag<sup>+</sup>-selective electrode. Potentiometric response revealed that electrode based on the proposed ionophore with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as solvent in a poly (vinyl chloride) membrane matrix shows a measuring range of 1.0×10<sup>-6</sup>-1.0×10<sup>-</sup><sup>2</sup> M with a slope of 50.4±0.3 mV/decade. This electrode has high selectivity to Ag<sup>+</sup> with respect to alkaline, alkaline earth and other heavy metal ions.</p> Zhang Jun Chen Qiwei Zhang Wenting Yu Chunwei Zhang Qinnan Yang Shouhong Yao Bin Xu Xuan Copyright (c) 2020 Zhang Jun, Chen Qiwei, Zhang Wenting, Yu Chunwei, Zhang Qinnan, Yang Shouhong, Yao Bin, Xu Xuan 2020-04-10 2020-04-10 17 30 34 10.24297/jac.v17i.8685 Effect of Temperature Extraction on the Potassium and Calcium Content in the Lemon and Orange Water Peel Extracts <p>The aim of this study is to examine the effect of temperature extraction on the potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) contents in orange and lemon peel extracts. The extractions were done at 62 ºC and 92 °C for 15 minutes and atmospheric pressure in distilled water. The fruit peel content in the extraction mixture was 5 % (w/v) in all samples. Calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations have been determined by flame photometric method. This research has revealed that by increasing the temperature of extraction, in particular, the concentration of Ca and K concentrations increased as applied extraction temperatures increased. The concentration of potassium is higher than the concentration of calcium in orange and lemon extracts, respectively. The concentration of K was 308 mg/l at 62 ºC and 361 mg/l at 92 ºC in lemon extracts, while in orange extracts the concentration of K was 476 mg/l at 62 ºC and 483 mg/l at 92 ºC. The concentration of Ca was 70.8 mg/l at 62 ºC and 71.9 mg/l at 92 ºC in lemon extracts, while in orange extracts the concentration of Ca was 91 mg/l at 62 ºC and 93.6 mg/l at 92 ºC. These results confirm that both citrus could be a very valuable source of potassium and calcium which are needed micronutrients to ensure the water and electrolyte balance and to build and maintain strong bones, proper function of muscles and nerves.</p> Amra Bratovcic Copyright (c) 2020 Amra Bratovcic 2020-04-19 2020-04-19 17 35 43 10.24297/jac.v17i.8714 How variations in concentrations of metal ions and suspended solids downstream river Rwabakazi in Uganda can be used to study pollution <p>Pollution is affecting river Rwabakazi in the Nile basin. Its effects are reflected by high turbidity, pH, total suspended solids, (T.S.S.), electrical conductivity, metal ions concentrations, and low concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO<sub>5</sub>). In this study, we report the variations in selected physicochemical parameters of waters of the Rwabakazi river. Turbidity, pH, concentrations of selected metal ions, T.S.S., and DO<sub>5</sub> of water sampled from three selected sites on the river in Kabale were very high. Mean DO<sub>5</sub> fell from 96 ± 2 mg/L to 86± 1.5 mg/L downstream. The mean pH fell from 7.8 ± 0.03 to 7.6 ± 0.04, showing the removal of basic components. The turbidity dropped from370 ± 3 NTU to 305 ± 2 NTU, showing that the haziness of water decreased. The concentration of iron(II) fell from 320 ± 0.3 mg/L to 291 ± 0.2 mgL<sup>-1</sup> indicating the fair extent of heavy metal ions downstream. The T.S.S. decreased from 330 ± 5 mg/L to 300± 5 mg/L, and concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions also decreased, providing evidence for self-purification. The available data suggests that river Rwabakazi is polluted as a result of poor agricultural practices, erosion, and flash flooding. Further studies on nutrient and pesticide pollution of this river need to be carried out, and trees should be planted on steep open surfaces to minimize erosion. </p> Mukasa-Tebandeke, I. Z. Karume, I. Ssebuwufu, J. Wasajja , H. Z. Nankinga, R Habimana, M Copyright (c) 2020 Mukasa-Tebandeke, I. Z., Karume, I., Ssebuwufu, J., Wasajja , H. Z., Nankinga, R, Habimana, M 2020-06-09 2020-06-09 17 44 63 10.24297/jac.v17i.8767 Thermochemical Liquefaction of Kraft Lignin As A Waste Management Process <p>Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing or disposal, monitoring, and managing of waste materials. It tries to reduce the harmful environmental impact of each through different methods, which include but not limited to landfill, incineration, recycling, biological processing, and reduction methods. Generation, utilization and disposal of waste is increasingly becoming a significant problem in many cities of the world, with an exploding world population estimated to have a global doubling time now less than twenty years. This research focuses on energy recovery as a viable method of disposal of non-hazardous biomass components of municipal solid waste with a prototype waste kraft lignin material using the thermochemical liquefaction process. The process used high pressure, high temperature in the presence of kraft lignin, slurry solvent, and a suitable catalyst to produce a mixture of gases, liquid, and solid capable of been used as fuels and chemicals and providing an alternative to the other methods. This value-adding process serves a dual purpose of providing a source of energy and providing an alternative waste management method.</p> Bob Soile Moses Akiibinu,Felix Oyeyiola Copyright (c) 2020 Bob Soile, Moses Akiibinu,Felix Oyeyiola 2020-06-09 2020-06-09 17 64 72 10.24297/jac.v17i.8715 Simultaneous Determination Of Atenolol And Hydrocholrothiazide In Tablets Formulation By Derivative Spectrometry <p>The derivative spectrophotometric method was developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of Atenolol (ATE) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in Tablets formulations. The first derivative spectrophotometric (<sup>1</sup>DS) method was applied for the determination of (ATE) and (HCT), respectively. (ATE) was determined at 271.9 nm (<sup>1</sup>D <sub>271.9</sub>) and (HCT) was determined at 279.3 nm (<sup>1</sup>D <sub>279.3</sub>). Linearity showed a good correlation coefficients R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9994 and R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9989 for (ATE) and (HCT), respectively. Linearity ranges were (10 – 280) SAAD ANTAKLI LEON NEJEM MOUSTAFA ALABO JOUMAA Copyright (c) 2020 SAAD ANTAKLI, LEON NEJEM, MOUSTAFA ALABO JOUMAA 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 17 73 79 10.24297/jac.v17i.8808 Analytical Spectrometric Study For Determining Dapagliflozin Propanediol Monohydrate Individually Or In Presence Of Metformin Hydrochloride In Tablets Formulation <p>First simple spectrophotometric method was developed and applied to determine Dapagliflozin Propanediol Monohydrate by Zero Spectrophotometry and First Derivative Spectrophotometric method for determining of Dapagliflozin Propanediol Monohydrate (DAPA) in the presence of Metformin Hydrochloride (MET). Zero spectrophotometric (ZS) was applied for the determination of (DAPA) at 223.5 nm. Linearity range was (2.61– 31.23) µg/mL. Regression analysis showed a good correlation coefficients R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9989. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were to be 0.569 µg/mL and 1.724 µg/mL, respectively. Derivative spectrophotometric (<sup>1</sup>DS) was applied for the determination of (DAPA) in the presence (MET). (DAPA) was determined at 233 nm (<sup>1</sup>D<sub>233</sub>). Linearity ranges were (5.21 – 41.64) µg/mL for (DAPA). Regression analysis showed a good correlation coefficients R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9994. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were to be 0.732 µg/mL and 2.218 µg/mL for (DAPA). The proposed Zero spectrophotometry method was applied to analysis individual (DAPA), and the derivative (1D<sub>233</sub>) method was applied to analysis (DAPA) individually or with (MET) combination in Syrian trademark drugs.</p> SAAD ANTAKLI Raghad Kabbani and Rama Labban Copyright (c) 2020 SAAD ANTAKLI, Raghad Kabbani, and Rama Labban 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 17 80 87 10.24297/jac.v17i.8812 The Periodic Table needs negative orbitals in order to eliminate quantum weirdness: a new quantum chemistry mathematics <p>A consensus among quantum experts is that the quantum world is not properly understood. It is a mistake to think we can cure quantum weirdness by tinkering with superficial aspects of quantum mechanics (QM). We propose that nature uses (–<em>ψ</em>) as its wave function, whereas QM uses (+<em>ψ</em>). We propose therefore that the Periodical Table should be changed to negative orbitals (–<em>ψ</em>). Surprisingly, this change makes almost no difference to chemistry on a practical level. The Born rule takes the absolute square of an amplitude to obtain a probability to test in chemistry lab P=|–<em>ψ</em>|<sup>2</sup>=|+<em>ψ</em>|<sup>2</sup>. We propose a new math based on (–<em>ψ</em>) that is the mirror image of quantum mathematics. We call it the Theory of Elementary Waves (TEW). The negative sign is not an electrical charge. It has nothing to do with Coulomb’s law. Valence electrons are unchanged. Ions, covalent bonds, dipoles, metals, hydrogen bonding and the hydrogen 21 cm line are unchanged. The octet rule and rules for drawing dot structures of molecules do not change. Amino acids, sugars and DNA do not change their handedness. We cite abundant experimental evidence showing that TEW is correct and QM is wrong.</p> Jeffrey H. Boyd Copyright (c) 2020 Jeffrey H. Boyd 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 17 88 125 10.24297/jac.v17i.8865