Improving Quality of Water from Murchison Bay using Clay from Chelel, Kapchorwa District, Ugandao
Keywords:Water pollution, Clay from Chelel
Pollution resulting from increased human activities is threatening Lake Victoria, its effects are characterized by eutrophication, high turbidity, pH, iron(II) concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study we have investigated the effect of Fe-montmorillonite clay from Chelel on turbidity, pH, concentration of iron, total suspended soils, total nutrients and COD of water sampled from Murchison bay watershed of Nakivubo channel south of Kampala. Varying amounts of clay powder was vigorously stirred with water samples for 5 minutes, filtered using Whitman paper at ambient temperatures. The optimum concentration of clay of 0.4gl-1 was found to produce 73.5+ 2% fall in COD indicating elimination of microbes and organic waste. The pH of water became 6.3+ 0.2 showing that impurities had been bound to clay. The turbidity of filtrate dropped to 15.7+ 0.3NTUshowing that clarity of water was improved by adsorption of suspended solids to clay minerals. The concentration of iron(II) fell from 3.7 + 0.3 to 2.5+ 0.2mgl-1 indicating fairly high extent of heavy metal removal from Murchison bay (MB) waters. The TSS and nutrients in MB water also decreased greatly when clay was stirred with water at ambient temperatures. The available data can be relied on to recommend use of this clay in treatment of waste water and/or sewage from Kampala. Further studies on combined use of clays with alums, zeolites and/or lime need to be carried out.
Abd-Allah, SM.; Gaber, HM.; (2004) Monitoring of pesticide residues in different sources of drinking water in some rural areas. Alexandria J. Agric. Res. 49, 112-114.
Abdur R., Zafor M.A, and Rahman M. (2013). Surface water quality and risk assessment in the vicinity of Sylhet City¸ International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Vol. 5(1), 29- 34
Akurut, M., Niwagaba, C. B., & Willems, P. (2014a). Potential impacts of climate change on precipitation over Lake Victoria, East Africa, in the 21st Century. Water, 6 (Water Resources in a Variable and Changing Climate) (pp. 2634– 2659). DOI:10.3390/w6092634.
Akurut, M., Willems, P., & Niwagaba, C. B. (2014b). Assessing the influence of Lake Victoria flux on the Inner Murchison Bay water quality. In C. Brebbia (Ed.), Water Pollution XII, Algarve, Portugal (vol. 182, pp. 51–62). WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, WIT Press. DOI:10.2495
Akurut, M.: Niwagaba, C. B. Niwagaba & Willems, P. (2017) Long-term variations of water quality in the Inner Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria Environ. Monit. Assess 189:22 DOI 10.1007/s10661-016-5730-4
Ali, S. M., Khalid, A. R., & Majid, R. M. (2014). The removal of Zinc, Chromium, and Nickel from industrial waste water using Corn cobs,55(1), 123 – 131
Al-Jlil, S.A. and Alsewailem, F.D., (2009), Saudi Arabian Clays for Lead Removal in Wastewater. Applied Clay Science, 42, 671-674.
Aljlil, S.A., and Fares, D.A., 2014, Adsorption of copper and nickel on bentonite clay from wastewater. Athens Journal of Natural & Formal Sciences, 1(1), 21-30
Al-Zahrani, A.A., Al-Shahrani, S.S., Al-Tawil, Y.A., (2000). Study on the activation of Saudi
bentonite, part II: characterization of the produced active clay and its test as an adsorbing agent, J.King Saud Univ., 13, Eng. Sci. (2), 193–203.
American Public Health Association (1999). American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation.
American Public Health Association (2003). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 20th ed. Method, 4500, E.
American Public Health Association (APHA), 1995. Standard Methods for Analysis of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition. Port City Press, Baltimore, MD.
American Water Works Association,& Water Environment Federation (1999). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water.
Ansari A.A., Gill S.S., Khan F.A. (2010) Eutrophication: Threat to Aquatic Ecosystems. In: Ansari A., Singh Gill S., Lanza G., Rast W. (eds) Eutrophication: causes, consequences, and control. Springer, Dordrecht DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9625-8_7
Bacchin, P; A. Marty; P. Duru; M. Meireles; P. Aimar (2011). Colloidal surface interactions and membrane fouling: Investigations at pore scale Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 164, 2–11
.Bracchini, L., Loiselle, S.A., Tognazzi, A., Dattilo, A.M., Focardi, S., Cózar, A., (2007). The optical qualities of shallow wetland lined bays in Lake Victoria. Wetl. Ecol. Manag., 15, 509–519.
Bain, C.D., and Nadeau, P.H. (1986). Composition of some smectite and diagenetic illite clays
Banadda, E. N., Kansiime, F., Kigobe, M., Kizza, M., & Nhapi, I. (2009). Landuse-based nonpoint source pollution: a threat to water quality in Murchison Bay, Uganda. Water Policy, 11, 93–104. doi:10.2166/wp.2009.106.
Barbooti, M., (2015), Simultaneous removal of chromium and lead from water by sorption on Iraqi Montmorillonite. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 237-249.
Bedelean, H., Maecaneanu, A., Burca, S., Stanca, M. (2010): Romanian zeolitic volcanic tuffs and bentonites used to remove ammonium ions from wastewaters. Hellenic J. Geosci. 45, 23–32
Bellir, K., Lehocine, M.B. and Meniai, A.-H., (2013): Zinc removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto bentonite. Desalination Water Treatment, 51, 5035–5048.
Bhattacharyya, K.G., and S. Sen Gupta, S.(2008): Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: a review, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 140(2). 114–131.
Bradford, S. & Torkzaban, S. (2008). Colloid Transport and Retention in Unsaturated Porous Media: A Review of Interface-, Collector-, and Pore-Scale Processes and Models. Vadose Zone Journal. 7. 10.2136/vzj2007.0092.
Bwogi, A.L. (2012) Wetlands management http://www.mwe.go.ug/index.phb?option=com.content&view=articleid=40&itemid=201.
Cadena, F.; R. Rizvi, and R. W. Peters, (1990).“Feasibility studies for the removal of heavy metal from solution using tailoredbentonite, hazardous and industrial wastes,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Mid-Atlantic Industrial Waste Conference, pp. 77–94, Drexel University.
Chartterjee, T., Chartterjee, S., and HanWoo, S, (2009), Enhanced coagulation of bentonite particles in water by a modified chitosan biopolymer. Chemical engineering journal, 148, 414-419.
Chaterjee C, and Raziuddin, M (2002). Determination of Water Quality Index (WQI) of a degraded river in Asansol Industrial Area, Raniganj.Burdwan, West Bengal. Nature, Environment and Pollution Technology. 1(2):181-189.
Christidis, G. E., Scott, P.W., and Marcopolous, T. (1995). Origin of bentonite deposits of Eastern Milos Islands, Greece: Geological, chemical, and geochemical evidence. Clays and Clay Miner. 43(1), 63-77.
Christidis, G., Dunham, A. C. (1993). Composition variations in smectites of Milos Island, Greece. Clay Miner. 28, 255-257.
Cózar, A., Bergamino, N., Mazzuoli, S., Azza, N., Bracchini, L., Dattilo, A., et al. (2007). Relationships between wetland ecotones and inshore water quality in the Ugandan coast of Lake Victoria. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 15, 499– 507. doi:10.1007/s11273-007-9046-6.
de Zwart, A. H., de Boer, J., Vafei, A., Schotting R.J., Hassanizadeh, S.M. (2006). Experimental investigation of clogging processes in sandy aquifers near water supply wells, using X-ray chromatography. In preparation.
Dos Santos, V.C.G., Grassi, M.T., Abate, G. (2015): Sorption of Hg(II) by modified K10 montmorillonite: influence of pH, ionic strength and the treatment with different cations. Geoderma 237–238, 129–136.
Egemen Ö (2000). Environment and water pollution. Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries. zmir, Turkey, (40): 120.
Gates, K. (2002). Mineralogy of bentonites. Clays and Clay Miner., 50:223-239.
Gikuma-Njuru, P., & Hecky, R. (2005). Nutrient concentrations in Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya: light limits algal demand and abundance. Hydrobiologia, 534(1–3), 131–140.
Gikuma-Njuru, P., Hecky, R., Guildford, S., & MacIntyre, S. (2013): Spatial variability of nutrient concentrations, fluxes, and ecosystem metabolism in Nyanza Gulf and Rusinga Channel, Lake Victoria (East Africa). Limnology and Oceanography, 58(3), 774–789.
Haande, S., Rohrlack, T., Semyalo, R. P., Brettum, P., Edvardsen, B., Lyche-Solheim, A. (2011). Phytoplankton dynamics and cyanobacterial dominance in Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (Uganda) in relation to environmental conditions. Limnologica - Ecology, and Management of Inland Waters, 41, 20–29. doi:10.1016/j.limno.2010.04.001. 22 Page 16 of 17 Environ Monit Assess (2017) 189:22
Hecky, R., Bugenyi, F., Ochumba, P., Talling, J., Mugidde, R., Gophen, M., (1994): Deoxygenation of the deep water of Lake Victoria, East Africa. Limnology and Oceanography, 39(6), 1476–1481.
Hecky, R., Mugidde, R., Ramlal, P., Talbot, M., & Kling, G. (2010): Multiple stressors cause rapid ecosystem change in Lake Victoria. Freshwater Biology, 55(s1), 19–42.
Hecky, R.E., and Bugenyi, F.W.B. (1992): Hydrology and chemistry of the African great lakes and water-quality issues: problems and solutions. Mitt Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol 23:45–54
Hindawi Publishing Corporation (2011): Advances in the application of natural clay and its composites in the removal of biological, organic, and inorganic contaminants from drinking water Advances in Materials Science and Engineering Volume 2011, Article ID 872531,17pages doi:10.1155/2011/872531
implications for their origin. Clay and Clay Miner., 34(4) 455-464.
Inglezakis, V.J., Stylianou, M.A., Gkantzou, D., and Loizidou, M.D., (2007): Removal of Pb (II) from aqueous solutions by using clinoptilolite and bentonite as adsorbents. Desalination, 210, pp 248-256
Jepson, W. B., Browse, J. B. (1975): Composition of kaolinite, an electron microbe study. Clay and Clay Minerals 23, 316-317.
Jiang, J.Q., Zeng, Z., and Pearce, P., (2004): Evaluation of modified clay coagulant for sewage treatment. Chemosphere, 56, pp 181-185.
John Wiley and Sons Inc. ( 1993) Aquatic Pollution. E.A. Laws.,. 2nd ed. pp 148-149. New York
Kansiime, F., Nalubega, M., van Braggen, J., and Danny, P. (2003). The effect of wastewater discharge on biomass production and nutrient content of cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violacum in the Nakivubo wetland, Kampala Uganda. Water science and technology 48(5), 233-240
Kennedy, K.K., Maseka, K.J. and Mbulo, M. (2018): Selected adsorbents for removal of contaminants from wastewater: Towards engineering clay minerals. Open journal of applied sciences 8, 355-369 http://doi.org/10.4236/ojapps.2018.8807
Kerr, P. F. (1952). Formation and occurrence of clay minerals. Clays and Clay Minerals. 1, 19–32.
Kul, A.R., Koyuncu, H.(2010): Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by native and activated bentonite: kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic study. J. Hazard. Mater. 179, 332–339
Lenore S. Clesceri, Andrew D. Eaton, Eugene W. Rice (2005). Standard Methods for Examination of Water & Wastewater Method 5210B. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and the Water Environment Association. http://www.standardmethods.org
Luyiga, S., Haande, S., Semyalo, R. P., Kizito, Y. S., Miyingo-Kezimbira, A., Brettum, P. (2015). How water exchange and seasonality affect the eutrophication of Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria. Limnologica-Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, 53, 60–73.
Lyddy-Meaney AJ, Ellis PS, Worsfold PJ, Butler Ecv, and Mckelvie ID (2002). A compact flow injection analysis system for surface mapping of phosphate in marine waters. Talanta (58): 1043-1053.
Machiwa, P. K. (2003). Water quality management and sustainability: the experience of the Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP)––Tanzania. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 28(20), 1111–1115.
Mainstone C P and Parr. W(2002). Phosphorus in rivers – ecology and management. Sci. Tot. Environ., (282/283): 25–47.
Mavuti, K. M, M. R. Litterick, (1991). Composition, distribution, and ecological role of zooplankton community in Lake Victoria, Kenyan waters. Verh. Interat. Verein. Limnol. 24: 1117-1122.
McDowell‐Boyer, L.M.; R. Hunt, J.R.; Sitar, N. (1986): Particle transport through porous media Water resources research 22(13) 1901-1921 https://doi.org/10.1029/WR022i013p01901
Mukasa-Tebandeke, I.Z., Ssebuwufu, P.J.M., Nyanzi, S.A., Schumann, A., Nyakairu, G.W.A., Ntale, M., and F. Lugolobi, (2015). The Elemental, Mineralogical, IR, DTA and XRD Analyses Characterized Clays and Clay Minerals of Central and Eastern Uganda. Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, 5, 67-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ampc.2015.52010
Murray, H.H.(2007): Applied Clay Mineralogy: Occurrences, Processing and Application of Kaolins, Bentonites, Palygorskite-Sepiolite, and Common Clays. Elsevier, Amsterdam
Musinguzi, M. Ejiri, A.H. (2016) Trends in the degradation of freshwater urban wetlands in Kampala Uganda, a case study of Lubigi wetland. International journal of research in earth and environmental sciences4(3) http://www.ijsk.org/ijrees.html
Ramachandran V, Fogler HS. (1999). Plugging by hydrodynamic bridging during the flow of stable colloidal particles within cylindrical pores J Fluid Mech 385. , 129–156. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112098004121
Razman A R, Tajudin M H, Ooi L H, and Tang M.K (1999). Fertilizer Requirement and Practical of The Plantation Industry in Malaysia, Felda Agricultural Services.
Rozic, M., Stefanovic, S.C., Kurajica, S., Vancina, V., and Hodzig, E.(2000): Ammoniacal nitrogen removal from water by treatment with clays and zeolites. Water Res. 34, 3675–3681.
Sajidu, S.M.I. Pearson, I., Masamba, W.R.L., Henry, E.M.T., and Kayambazinthu, D. (2006). Removal of Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) cations from Tundulu from auoues solution by mixed clay from Tundulu in Malawi and characterization of the clay. Water SA 32(4) 519-526.
Scheren, P., Zanting, H., & Lemmens, A. (2000). Estimation of water pollution sources in Lake Victoria, East Africa: application and elaboration of the rapid assessment methodology. Journal of Environmental Management, 58(4), 235–248.
Sen, T. K., and Khilar, K. C. (2006). Review on subsurface colloids and colloid-associated contaminant transport in saturated porous media. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 119(2-3), 71-96.
Singh, N., Nagpal, G., Agrawal, S., and Rachina (2018). Water purification by using various adsorbents: A review. Environmental technology and innovation 11, 187-240. http://doi.org/10.1616/j.eti.2018.05.006.
Smith, V.H., Tilman, G.D., and Nekola, J.C. (1999). Eutrophication: Impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Environ. Pollut. 100: 179-196.
Srinivasan, R.. (2011): Advances in application of natural clay and its composites in removal of biological, organic, and inorganic contaminants from drinking water. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 11, 1-17.
Ssebiyonga, N., Erga, S. R., Hamre, B., Stamnes, J. J., & Frette, Ø. (2013). Light conditions and photosynthetic efficiency of phytoplankton in Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria, Uganda. Limnologica-Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, 43(3), 185–193.
Swamy A.; Terer Erick Kipngetich, Magut Hillary and T. (2013) CODEN (USA): IJPLCP ISSN: 0976-7126 Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), 4(7), 2828-2833 2829
Syafalni, Rohana Abdullah, Ismail Abustan, Aimi Nadiah Mohd Ibrahim (2013). Wastewater treatment using bentonite, the combinations of bentonite-zeolite, bentonite-alum, and bentonitelimestone as adsorbent and coagulant International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 4 No.3, 2013 391
Tahir, S.S., and Rauf, N., (2004) Removal of Fe (II) from the wastewater of a galvanized pipe manufacturing industry by adsorption onto bentonite clay. Journal of engineering management, 73, pp 285-292.
Tamatamah, R. A., Hecky, R. E., & Duthie, H. (2005). The atmospheric deposition of phosphorus in Lake Victoria (East Africa). Biogeochemistry, 73, 325–344. doi:10.1007 /s10533-004-0196-9. USDA (2015). USDA. http://www.pecad.fas.usda. gov/lakes/images/lake0314.TPJO.2.txt. Accessed 12 May 2015.
Tanabe, K.(1981).“Solid acid and base catalysis,” in Catalysis—Science, and Technology, J. R. Anderson and M. Boudart, Eds.,p. 231, Springer, New York, NY, USA.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Eutrophication: http://www.epa.gov/maia/html/eutroph.html
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Nutrient Guidance: http://www.epa.gov/ost/criteria/nutrient/guidance/
van Olphen, H. (1977), An Introduction to Clay Colloid Chemistry, Wiley Interscience, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1977.
Volzone, C., Foletto, F.L., and Porto, L.M. (2003). Performance of an Argentinian acid-activated bentonite in the bleaching of soybean oil. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. 20(2) 123-126.
World Health Organization, WHO (2004). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, vol. 1, 3 rd ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
World Health Organization, WHO (2008). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, Incorporating the first and second Addenda. Vol. 1, 3rd ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 20. Oeteman, B.C.J (1980).
Yarahmadi, M., Hossieni, M., Bina, B., Mahmoudian, M.H., Naimabadie, A., and Shahsavani, A., (2009), Application of Moringa Oleifer Seed Extract and Polyaluminium Chloride in Water Treatment. World applied sciences journal, 7 (8), pp 962-967.
Zadaka, D., Nir, S., Radian, A., and Mishael, Y. G., (2009), Atrazine removal from water by poly cation-clay composites: effect of dissolved organic matter and comparison to activated carbon. Water Research, 43(3), 677-683.
Zamparas, M., Drosos, M., Geogiou, Y., Deligiannakis, Y., Zacharias, I.(2013): A novel bentonite-humic acid composite material Bephos™ for removal of phosphate and ammonium from eutrophic waters. Chem. Eng. J. 225, 43–51.
Zhang, J. and Chi, J. (2002) Automated Analysis of Nanomolar Concentrations of Phosphate in Natural Waters with Liquid Waveguide Environ. Sci. Technol., 36 (5), 1048–1053 DOI: 10.1021/es011094v
Zhang, X. and Wang, X. (2015) Adsorption and Desorption of Nickel (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by a Lignocellulose/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite. PLoS One, 10, e0117077.
Zhang, X., Lv, G., Liao, L., He, M., Li, Z., Wang, M.(2012): Removal of low concentrations of ammonium and humic acid from simulated groundwater by vermiculite/palygorskite mixture. Water Environ. Res. 84, 682–688.
Zhao, Y., Yang, Y., Yang, S., Wang, Q., Feng, C., Zhang, Z.(2013): Adsorption of high ammonium nitrogen from wastewater using a novel ceramic adsorbent and the evaluation of the ammonium-adsorbed-ceramic as fertilizer. J. Colloid Interface, Sci. 393, 264–270.
Zhu, J., Cozzolino, V., Pigna, M.; Huang, Q.; Caporale, A.G. and Violante, A. (2011). Sorption of Cu, Pb, and Cr on Na-montmorillonite: Competition and effect of major elements. Chemosphere, 84:484-489
How to Cite
All articles published in Journal of Advances in Linguistics are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.