JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN NATURAL SCIENCES 2021-09-10T04:09:00+00:00 Gurpal Kaur Open Journal Systems Strong deep-water formation in Baffin Bay ensured the heavy snowfall that initiated the Last Ice Age in the Northern Hemisphere 2021-09-10T04:09:00+00:00 Robert Glenn Johnson <p>The extremely heavy precipitation that initiated the Last Ice Age (the Wisconsin Glaciation in Canada) was caused by a strong and persistent atmospheric low-pressure system centered over the northern Labrador Sea and southern Baffin Bay. This system, called the Labrador Low, was dependent on strong deep-water formation in the northern end of Baffin Bay. The replacement for the sinking deep water consisted of warmer and more saline Irminger Current water that mixed into the northward-flowing West Greenland Current near the center of the Labrador Low. The heavy precipitation in northeastern Canada began after the stratification in Baffin Bay was eliminated by the southward flow of denser Atlantic water through the Nares Strait. This temporary flow began when the oscillating Atlantic Meridional Oceanic Circulation (AMOC) flow reached a maximum greater than today. This sent Atlantic water westward, north of Greenland and through the Nares Strait. Although the extremely heavy snowfall began the Wisconsin Glaciation in Canada, the initiation of the Last Ice Age in Eurasia was a more complex process and was delayed by about 4,000 years by formation of the Hudson Strait ice dam.</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Robert Glenn Johnson Prevalence of feline coronavirus, feline leukemia virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus in client-owned cats in Croatia 2021-07-13T09:10:01+00:00 Jelena Raukar <p>This study aimed to determine prevalences for anti-FCoV antibody, FeLV antigen, FeLV proviral DNA, and anti-FIV antibody among client-owned cats from the cities of Zagreb and Varaždin in Croatia. Subjects included 106 client-owned cats tested at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria. Blood samples were tested with IFA for anti-FCoV antibody and IFA FCoV antibody titeres, with ELISA for FeLV p27 antigen, with PCR for FeLV proviral DNA, and with RIM for anti-FIV antibody. Prevalence of FCoV and FeLV was 41.51% and 6.60%, respectively. A coinfection with FeLV/FCoV and FIV/FCoV prevalence was 7.55% and 5.66%. No cats were coinfected with FIV and FeLV. All three viruses were detected, confirming their presence in Croatia. The seroepidemiological findings demonstrate that both feline retroviruses and feline coronavirus are important feline pathogens in Croatia.</p> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jelena Raukar The role of the formation and destruction of the Hudson Strait glacial ice dam in changes of climate and sea level during the Last Interglacial-Glacial transition 2021-06-08T10:30:13+00:00 Robert G. Johnson <p>During the Last interglacial period of constant sea level, large coral reefs formed on the tectonically rising island of Barbados, and a broad lagoon with a small barrier reef formed at the Cane Vale site. The constant sea level was ended by a rapid glaciation, causing a fall of world sea level of 2.4 m, as measured by surveys of features associated with breaking waves on Barbados. The fall began about 120 ka BP, and lasted roughly 400 years, according to a lake pollen record from western Europe. That rapid fall was terminated at a wave-cut step on Barbados and with a quite small reversal in falling sea level. The rise was caused by rapid melting of the marine-based Barents Sea ice dome and other ice masses, due to a restored strong Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) flow. The sea level fall then resumed until it was halted at a wave-cut step at a world sea level 12.3 m below the last interglacial level, as recorded at the University of the West Indies site on Barbados. Following the erosion of that second step, a zonal northern North Atlantic circulation prevailed, causing a glacial ice-volume decrease and rise in sea level of 3.8 m. These two sea level fall reversals were caused respectively by the formation and destruction of a Hudson Strait ice dam and the resulting increase and much later decrease in the rate of AMOC flow.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Robert G. Johnson Hudson Strait ice dam collapse: An explanation for the onset of the Younger Dryas cold climate in Europe in only one year 2021-02-04T06:02:14+00:00 Robert Glenn Johnson <p>The Younger Dryas cold climate event in Europe began abruptly at about 12,679 years BP. The abruptness of the onset was caused by the rapid collapse of a dynamic ice dam that had existed because of ice stream flow across the east end of Hudson Strait in northern Canada. The resulting flood of icebergs into the southern half of the Northern Gyre adjacent to the Gulf Stream converted western Europe’s mild climate to an arctic climate. The collapse event was caused by the last large accumulation of glacial ice in the thick ice dome of Hudson Bay. The accumulation created a pressure gradient that forced an ice stream flow eastward in Hudson Strait. A highly saline sub-glacial lake had formed earlier in the western part of the strait. The ice stream flow entrained saline lake water in a network of channels at the seabed between the lake and the ice dam, melting and extending the network eventually to and beneath the ice dam. This detached much of the ice dam from its frozen bed and caused its catastrophic collapse and the onset of the Younger Dryas in only one year.</p> 2021-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Robert Glenn Johnson