JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN NATURAL SCIENCES 2021-06-08T10:30:13+00:00 Gurpal Kaur Open Journal Systems Hudson Strait ice dam collapse: An explanation for the onset of the Younger Dryas cold climate in Europe in only one year 2021-02-04T06:02:14+00:00 Robert Glenn Johnson <p>The Younger Dryas cold climate event in Europe began abruptly at about 12,679 years BP. The abruptness of the onset was caused by the rapid collapse of a dynamic ice dam that had existed because of ice stream flow across the east end of Hudson Strait in northern Canada. The resulting flood of icebergs into the southern half of the Northern Gyre adjacent to the Gulf Stream converted western Europe’s mild climate to an arctic climate. The collapse event was caused by the last large accumulation of glacial ice in the thick ice dome of Hudson Bay. The accumulation created a pressure gradient that forced an ice stream flow eastward in Hudson Strait. A highly saline sub-glacial lake had formed earlier in the western part of the strait. The ice stream flow entrained saline lake water in a network of channels at the seabed between the lake and the ice dam, melting and extending the network eventually to and beneath the ice dam. This detached much of the ice dam from its frozen bed and caused its catastrophic collapse and the onset of the Younger Dryas in only one year.</p> 2021-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Robert Glenn Johnson The role of the formation and destruction of the Hudson Strait glacial ice dam in changes of climate and sea level during the Last Interglacial-Glacial transition 2021-06-08T10:30:13+00:00 Robert G. Johnson <p>During the Last interglacial period of constant sea level, large coral reefs formed on the tectonically rising island of Barbados, and a broad lagoon with a small barrier reef formed at the Cane Vale site. The constant sea level was ended by a rapid glaciation, causing a fall of world sea level of 2.4 m, as measured by surveys of features associated with breaking waves on Barbados. The fall began about 120 ka BP, and lasted roughly 400 years, according to a lake pollen record from western Europe. That rapid fall was terminated at a wave-cut step on Barbados and with a quite small reversal in falling sea level. The rise was caused by rapid melting of the marine-based Barents Sea ice dome and other ice masses, due to a restored strong Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) flow. The sea level fall then resumed until it was halted at a wave-cut step at a world sea level 12.3 m below the last interglacial level, as recorded at the University of the West Indies site on Barbados. Following the erosion of that second step, a zonal northern North Atlantic circulation prevailed, causing a glacial ice-volume decrease and rise in sea level of 3.8 m. These two sea level fall reversals were caused respectively by the formation and destruction of a Hudson Strait ice dam and the resulting increase and much later decrease in the rate of AMOC flow.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Robert G. Johnson