https://rajpub.com/index.php/jab/issue/feed JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOLOGY 2020-07-03T04:45:50+00:00 Gurpal Kaur editor@rajpub.com Open Journal Systems https://rajpub.com/index.php/jab/article/view/8807 Field assessment of corn yield losses and compensatory yield for infested plants by Lepidopteran stem borers in different sowing dates at El-Behiera governorate, Egypt. 2020-07-03T04:45:50+00:00 Al-Eryan M. A. S amanyabu_shall@yahoo.com Abu- Shall Amany M. H. hanaa.hussein@yahoo.com Ibrahiem H. K. m_a_aleryan@yahoo.com Hussein Hanaa S. hanaa.hussein@yahoo.com <p>Whenever the determination of yield loss and economic injury levels are essential tools for initiating integrated pest management (IPM) programs in the maize field, the assessment of compensatory yield is very important for determinate the accurate losses in the field and the recovery power for the maize verity. The present study aimed to estimate the yield losses of three maize varieties due to <em>Sesamia critica</em> and <em>Ostrinia nubilalis,</em> infestation; regression between maize yield losses and percent of infestation and determine the compensatory yield arising in intact plants as a result of absence or dead (caused by infestation) of adjacent plants under field conditions in El-Behiera governorate. The present results showed that yield losses resulting from <em>S. cretica</em> infestation in early sowed maize ranged from 5.29 – 32.17%. In case of maize that sowed in recommended date “June”, yield losses due to <em>S. cretica</em> was slightly decreased, and it accompanied with <em>O. nubilalis</em> infestation in two fields, which increased the total yield losses. A simple linear regression turned out between the percentage of infestation of <em>S. cretica</em> or <em>O. nubilalis</em> and percentage of yield losses, with R<sup>2</sup> values 0.84 and 0.45, respectively. The yellow corn was more tolerant to stem borers infestation than white corn with percentages of increase rate in compensatory yield 27.07 %. </p> <p>Whenever the determination of yield loss and economic injury levels are essential tools for initiating integrated pest management (IPM) programs in the maize field, the assessment of compensatory yield is very important for determinate the accurate losses in the field and the recovery power for the maize verity. The present study aimed to estimate the yield losses of three maize varieties due to <em>Sesamia critica</em> and <em>Ostrinia nubilalis,</em> infestation; regression between maize yield losses and percent of infestation and determine the compensatory yield arising in intact plants as a result of absence or dead (caused by infestation) of adjacent plants under field conditions in El-Behiera governorate. The present results showed that yield losses resulting from <em>S. cretica</em> infestation in early sowed maize ranged from 5.29 – 32.17%. In case of maize that sowed in recommended date “June”, yield losses due to <em>S. cretica</em> was slightly decreased, and it accompanied with <em>O. nubilalis</em> infestation in two fields, which increased the total yield losses. A simple linear regression turned out between the percentage of infestation of <em>S. cretica</em> or <em>O. nubilalis</em> and percentage of yield losses, with R<sup>2</sup> values 0.84 and 0.45, respectively. The yellow corn was more tolerant to stem borers infestation than white corn with percentages of increase rate in compensatory yield 27.07 %. </p> 2020-08-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Eryan M. A. S, Abu- Shall Amany M. H., Ibrahiem H. K. , Huessein Hanaa S. https://rajpub.com/index.php/jab/article/view/8717 The Possible Effects of Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Benzoate as Food Additives on The Liver in Male Rats 2020-04-27T14:55:00+00:00 Eman Hashem Radwan dr_eman_hashem@yahoo.com MM Elghazaly eman.radwan@sci.dmn.edu.eg KK Abdel Aziz dr_eman_hashem@yahoo.com AI Barakat dr_eman_hashem@yahoo.com H Kh Hussein eman.radwan@sci.dmn.edu.eg <p>Common food additives endorsed by Food and drug Organization "FDA" are utilized to preserve taste. The display think about examined the perilous impacts of sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and their blend which utilized in fabricating of the food additives on a few biochemical parameters and&nbsp; histo-pathological examination in male rats. Male rats were divided into four groups; group I utilized as control, group II and III were treated orally with sodium nitrite NaNO<sub>2</sub> (80 mg/kg BW) and sodium benzoate (SB) (200 mg/kg BW), separately. Group IV was treated orally with the blend of sodium nitrite and sodium benzoate. Rats were managed their dosages each day for 8 weeks. It appeared that sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and their blend (NaNO<sub>2</sub> and SB) initiated a critical increment within the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase "AST", alanine aminotransferase "ALT". Antioxidant proteins (GSH, CAT) within the liver tissue recorded a decrease while, MDA recorded an increase action level within the tested groups. Over expression in p53 happened in exploratory groups which were treated by NaNO<sub>2</sub>, SB and their blend. The present study concluded that the blend of food additives can actuate harmfulness within the liver of rats. In conclusion, it is noted that food additives induced hepatotoxicity within the liver. It diminished the antioxidant chemicals (GSH, CAT) and elevated the activity level of the MDA and increment tumor silencer quality p53 in liver tissue. Food additive substances caused changes in biochemical parameters (ALT, AST). The utilization of food additives must be diminished. The usage of the mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium benzoate induced changes in biochemical parameters and immune-histopathology.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-04-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 eman hashem radwan, MM Elghazaly, KK Abdel Aziz, AI Barakat, H Kh Hussein https://rajpub.com/index.php/jab/article/view/8555 Adverse Effect of Mixture of Food Additives on Some Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats 2020-01-25T07:09:58+00:00 Eman Hashem Radwan dr_eman_hashem@yahoo.com Mohamed Mohamed Elghazaly dr_eman_hashem@yahoo.com Hussein Khamis Hussein dr_eman_hashem@yahoo.com Karolin Kamel Abdel Aziz dr_eman_hashem@yahoo.com Amel Ibrahim Barakat dr_eman_hashem@yahoo.com <p>The present study investigated the unsafe impacts of sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and their mixture which is utilized in fabricating of the food on some biochemical parameters in male albino rats. Rats (40) were divided into four groups as follows: group 1 used as the control, group II and III were treated orally with sodium nitrite nano2 (80 mg/kg BW) and sodium benzoate (SB) (200 mg/kg BW), respectively. Group IV was treated orally with a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium benzoate. Rats took their respective doses every day for 8 weeks. The obtained results showed that sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and their mixture (nano2 and SB) &nbsp;initiated a diminished within in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GSH) within the kidney, while, MDA recorded a highly significant activity level within experimental groups. Urea and creatinine mean levels were were expanded within plasma of the experimental rats. In the histology of the kidney, sections appeared edema with few mononuclear leukocyte cellular infiltrations, shrinkage of glomeruli. The severity of these changes increased in the experimental group which treated by the mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium benzoate. Overexpression in p53 occurred in experimental groups that were treated by nano2, SB and their mixture. The present study concluded that the mixture of food additives can induce toxicity in the kidney of rats. It is obvious that food additives induced nephrotoxicity &nbsp;within the kidney. It decreased the antioxidant enzymes (GSH, CAT, and SOD) and increased MDA. Increase tumor suppressor gene p53 in kidney tissue. Food added substances caused changes in biochemical parameters as in creatinine and urea. The utilization of food additives must be decreased. The presence of more than one type of food additives on our food and the usage of the mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium benzoate initiated changes in biochemical parameters and immune-histopathological changes.</p> 2020-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 eman hashem radwan