INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS & TECHNOLOGY KHALSA PUBLICATIONS en-US INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS & TECHNOLOGY 2277-3061 An Economic Model of Machine Translation <p>With the advent of free, online translation services such as <em>Google Translate, </em>many people are now able to obtain information relatively effortlessly from a wide variety of foreign language sources. The translations from these services are often worse than those provided by professional, human translators, however, and the tradeoff between these two alternatives is not always clear. When should a professional be used, and when is machine translation sufficient? In this study, we discuss factors involved in the decision and illustrate their use with a predictive model.</p> Milam Aiken Mina Park Copyright (c) 2021 Milam Aiken, Mina Park 2021-06-16 2021-06-16 21 76 83 10.24297/ijct.v21i.9046 Home Automation Using Packet Tracer and ESP8266 <p>The technology has been growing from day to day in human life. The basic need of human to lead his/her life comfortably is a home. A home with updated latest technology which means a smart home. In such a scenario, there is a need to have an endeavour to have everything at the push of a button away, and more importantly, automated. Home Automation is such an endeavour, in which, all the electrical appliances present at home are connected to each other, having interactions with sensors placed at strategic positions in a closed loop manner to perform meagre tasks automatically, leaving less burden on the humans. With this project we are promoting the fact that Home Automation can greatly contribute to energy conservation too. This paper gives the basic idea use cisco packet tracer to implement smart home. Cisco implemented (IoT) functionalities in the latest version of the platform, and now it is possible to add all the smart devices, sensors, actuators, and devices, which simulate microcontrollers like Arduino or Raspberry Pi to the network. All IoT devices can be run on generic programs or modified by Java, Python or Blocky programming them. This makes Cisco Packet Tracer a perfect method to construct functional simulations for IoT.</p> Sucheta Gupta Sushil Lekhi Copyright (c) 2021 Sucheta Gupta, Sushil Lekhi 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 21 84 96 10.24297/ijct.v21i.9061 Digital Business Model Innovation: Empirical insights into the drivers and value of Artificial Intelligence <p>The business activities of traditional industrial companies have commonly focused on products and product-related services. Digital pioneers have evolved their offerings into product-service systems that are networked, intelligent, personalized, and adaptable. The speed at which business models must change continues to be underestimated by many market participants, especially when order books are well filled and the pressure to change appears to be low. Industrial and service companies need to adapt to the changes induced by new market players better today than tomorrow to secure future business success and remain competitive in the digital age. The aim of this article is to intensify the debate on digital business model innovation in industry and the service sector and to enrich it with practical examples of the successful implementation of artificial intelligence in products and services.</p> Johannes Winter Copyright (c) 2021 Johannes Winter 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 21 63 75 10.24297/ijct.v21i.9035 A Tool Development Framework to Support Design Thinking for Software Engineering <p><em> </em>This research aims to create a framework to guide the development of design thinking support tools - that is, tools that enable people to express themselves creatively and develop as creative thinkers. The main goal is to develop advanced software and social networking sites that empower users to not only be productive, but also have new technologies. Potential users of these interfaces include software with other engineers, various scientists, product and image designers, builders, teachers, students and many more. Improved communication methods can enable effective psychological search, improved interaction between groups, and faster recovery processes. These advanced combinations should also provide strong support for hypothesis formation, rapid testing of alternatives, improved visual perception, and better distribution of results.</p> Ayse Kok Arslan Copyright (c) 2021 Ayse Kok Arslan 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 21 53 62 10.24297/ijct.v21i.8998 An Empirical Model For Validity And Verification Of Ai Behavior: Overcoming Ai Hazards In Neural Networks <p>Rapid progress in machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) has brought increasing attention to the potential impacts of AI technologies on society. This paper discusses hazards in machine learning systems, defined as unintended and harmful behavior that may emerge from poor design of real-world AI systems with a particular focus on ANN. The paper provides a review of previous work in these areas as well as suggesting research directions with a focus on relevance to cutting-edge AI systems with a focus on neural networks. Finally, the paper considers the high-level question of how to think most productively about the safety of forward-looking applications of AI.</p> Ayse K Arslan Copyright (c) 2021 Ayse K Arslan 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 21 44 52 10.24297/ijct.v21i.9009 Developing a Conversational Agent to Explore Machine Learning Concepts <p>This study aims to introduce a discussion platform and curriculum designed to help people understand how machines learn. Research shows how to train an agent through dialogue and understand how information is represented using visualization. This paper starts by providing a comprehensive definition of AI literacy based on existing research and integrates a wide range of different subject documents into a set of key AI literacy skills to develop a user-centered AI. This functionality and structural considerations are organized into a conceptual framework based on the literature. Contributions to this paper can be used to initiate discussion and guide future research on AI learning within the computer science community.</p> Ayse Kok Arslan Copyright (c) 2021 Ayse Kok Arslan 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 21 26 34 10.24297/ijct.v21i.9000 AN EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR EXPLORING AI IN GOVERNMENT: PUTTING SOCIO-TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVES INTO USE <p>This study explores the evolution of global AI dynamics by discussing its role in government with a focus on aspects of development and governance of social and technological systems (STS). This document reports three research questions, including the extent of the analysis: (1) theories regarding the concept of AI in the public sector; (2) expectations regarding the development of AI in the public sector; and, (3) the challenges and opportunities of AI in the public sector. This experimental study provides an experimental framework for a comprehensive approach to measuring the magnitude of AI policy that allows for the methods of evaluating different governance practices and policy priorities in different countries. The study sheds light onto areas of policy that have the potential to implement AI programs and strategies; administrative functions open to the acceptance of AI applications and strategies; and the challenges / risks that community managers may face in defining AI policies and projects in the public sector including how to deal with cyber-troops.</p> Ayse Kok Arslan Copyright (c) 2021 Ayse Kok Arslan 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 21 14 25 10.24297/ijct.v21i.8999 Code Generation from Simulink Models with Task and Data Parallelism <p>In this paper, we propose a method to automatically generate parallelized code from Simulink models, while exploiting both task and data parallelism. Building on previous research, we propose a model-based parallelizer (MBP) that exploits task parallelism and assigns tasks to CPU cores using a hierarchical clustering method. We also propose a<br />method in which data-parallel SYCL code is generated from Simulink models; computations with data parallelism are expressed in the form of S-Function Builder blocks and are executed in a heterogeneous computing environment. Most parts of the procedure can be automated with scripts, and the two methods can be applied together. In the evaluation, the data-parallel programs generated using our proposed method achieved a maximum speedup of approximately 547 times, compared to sequential programs, without observable differences in the computed results. In addition, the programs generated while exploiting both task and data parallelism were confirmed to have achieved better performance than those exploiting either one of the two.</p> Pin Xu Masato Edahiro Kondo Masaki Copyright (c) 2021 Pin Xu, Masato Edahiro, Kondo Masaki 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 21 1 13 10.24297/ijct.v21i.9004