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KHALSA PUBLICATIONS en-US JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH 2321-1091 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> Problems Encountered in Femanine Primary School Headship in Marange in Mutare District. <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate and identify the problems faced by female head teachers in the management of primary schools in Marange area in Mutare district in Manicaland province. The mixed method research design was used which incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methods. The target population in this study were the female head teachers in Marange area in Mutare district, teachers and the Education Officer of Marange area in Mutare district. Marange area in Mutare district has 52 primary schools, of which seven (7) are headed by female head teachers. The researchers used questionnaires and interview guides for collection of data. The interview was targeted for female head teachers and Education Inspector of Marange area in Mutare district. The data that was obtained was both quantitative and qualitative. Majority of the teachers (75.0%) said that their perception towards their head teachers was good. Majority of the teachers (87.5%) noted that psychological traits do not bar the head teachers from performing school duties effectively. All of the teachers noted that the students accorded male and female teachers at the same level of respect. The following conclusions were drawn. Female head teachers are positively viewed by their teachers and students and are approachable since they encourage them to work to attain their goals in schools. Cultural and social barriers do interfere with the management of school affairs. Half (50%) of the head teachers said there was no role conflict between domestic and professional roles while 50% of head teachers felt that there was conflict. On the psychological factors influencing the head teachers’ performance, 87.5% of the teachers said that biological traits did not bar the head teachers from performing school duties. This was because they had a teaching experience, were assertive and aggressive. The study recommended that since female heads were positively viewed strongly by teachers, there is need for them to be given more posts of leadership in primary schools. Thus, female head teachers are effective hence, they are able to achieve the goals of their respective institutions. Although cultural and social barriers may interfere with the management of school affairs, there is need for female heads to be encouraged to achieve leadership positions since they can manage the roles of leaders through mentorship.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Whatmore Chikwature Oyedele V Copyright (c) 2018 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH 2019-02-02 2019-02-02 14 2946 2963 10.24297/jssr.v13i0.7948 ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF INDIGENOUS WOODLANDS IN MARANGE COMMUNAL LANDS <p>This research study sought to determine the role of women in the sustainable management of indigenous woodlands in Manicaland province using Marange communal lands as a point of reference. In this study three traditional leaders, three women’s groups and seventy community women were used as research subjects. Questionnaires were used to gather data from the local women from the three selected villages. Interviews were also used to collect information from traditional leaders and women’s group leaders. These interviews were important in complementing data collected through questionnaires. Field observations were also carried out to enrich the data collected through interviews and questionnaires. The study showed that while women played a vital role in the sustainable management of indigenous woodlands in Marange communal lands, they faced various constraints including greater workload at home with little time to pursue activities outside the family. Therefore the study recommends that since women are more intimately involved with the environment through their day to day activities like fuel wood collection, they should be given due recognition in decision making processes. Finally, it is also recommended that the land tenure system should be redesigned to cater for female heads of households.</p> Whatmore Chikwature Chikwature E Copyright (c) 2019 Whatmore Chikwature, Chikwature E 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3048 3056 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8093 Health Service Delivery Complexities in Mutare Urban, Manicaland Zimbabwe <p>This research study sought to identify the health service delivery challenges in urban areas using Mutare as a point of reference. Interviews, focus group discussions and observations were used to collect data from selected residents of Mutare city. Mutare city is experiencing poor service provisions and serious health service delivery challenges. This is witnessed by high doctor to patient ratio, high infant and maternal mortality rates as well as high incidences of malaria and other infectious diseases. The challenges are not limited to drugs and medical facilities, medical staff, transport, distance and referral mechanism, costs and financing of services culture and attitudes, corruption and bribery. Recommendations were made regarding the possible adjustment to existing health strategies and policies used in Zimbabwe, for the improvement of the health service delivery system of the city of Mutare. New strategies were also recommended for the improvement of the health system of the city. Lastly, some proposals were made for further research on the health service delivery challenges in rural areas so that comparisons are made to see whether the challenges are the same.</p> Whatmore Chikwature Chikwature E Copyright (c) 2019 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 14 2964 2978 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8050 Economics of Child Labor: A Multidimensional approach <p>This paper is a multi–county, multi-dimensional&nbsp; rigorous &nbsp;analysis of immensely &nbsp;&nbsp;critical and continuously expanding socio-economic crisis that has engulfed many developing countries which calls for immediate action to preserve our present and future. This paper is an embodiment of study of all factors that are seriously responsible for promoting child labor in most of the less-developed, low-income, emerging, middle-income countries. Based on empirical data, and other research articles, this paper investigates the problem from political, social and economic and cultural aspects. This paper identifies the roots of crisis and attempts to bridge the existing gap between&nbsp; policy and implementation so as to make the world child labor free.</p> <p>First chapter deals with impact of poverty on child’s education, living conditions, well-being, future and their opportunities under poverty and the second chapter goes beyond income and well-being and answers to some of the most critical questions of our time related to childhood, society and public services and the third chapter namely the intergenerational perspective focus on policies and its failure and its continues impact on our societies and young at large and finally the conclusion chapter &nbsp;</p> <p>The primary objective of this paper is to investigate how varied factors destroy the destiny of young children and future of most of the countries sequentially and secondly to pin-point years of inefficiency in dealing with problem and finally pursued governments to refocus and act proactively. In essence, this paper explores poverty that is beyond income poverty.&nbsp; This paper enlightens various hidden facts that are key and more important than income poverty. The intensity of this on-going crisis in many countries explains a structural gap between policies and implementation and the gap between research and policy design. And Ironically&nbsp;&nbsp; this year is the deadline year for the Millennium Development Goals [MDG’s] set in year 2000, but even after 15 years of continued investment and commitment many of the goals haven’t been achieved yet, so ultimate propose of this paper elaborate a broader roadmap for achieving the MDG’s sooner. The centrality of this research project focuses on gap between state commitment and outcomes why and how prescription failed to deliver or achieve targets. But MDG’s haven’t been discussed in this paper as those the beyond the scope to this research, but its helps in creation of complete understating of failures and helps in creating a system that effectively address these issues.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Ahmed Faraz Copyright (c) 2019 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 14 2979 2996 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8098 Identifying the Most Critical Factors to Business Intelligence Implementation Success in the Public Sector Organizations <p>The BI is a new trend in public sector organizations that requires investigating the critical success factors (CSFs) which would provide a sound guidelines for determining the criteria to be considered during BI implementation. However, there is no sufficient empirical evidences that provide better understanding of the CSFs for the BI implementation in public sector organizations. This paper aims to identify the CSFs for BI system in the context of public sector organizations. This study adopts a mixed method approach using survey research method and qualitative interview using Jordanian public sector organization case. The findings of this research revealed that top management support, clear vision and strategic planning, team skills, user participation, organizational structure, user access and development technology are the most critical factors to BI implementation success in the public sector organizations. The findings of this study could assist the practitioners in the public sector organizations in planning, managing and implementing their BI projects properly by focusing on those CSFs of BI systems that provide them a better understanding to address issues and concerns related to BI implementation.</p> Asma Ibrahim Magaireh Hidayah Sulaiman Nor’ashikin Ali Copyright (c) 2019 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH 2019-02-02 2019-02-02 14 2997 3016 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8026 A Self-Assessment of a Philadelphia Group of Children, Youth and Family-Focused Agencies on Father Friendliness: A Descriptive Study <p>This project explored the integration of Responsible Fatherhood within Foster Care Service within Philadelphia Pennsylvania. It was hypothesized that the key to reducing the number of children who are at risk of entering, re-entering and remaining in various systems of care are the social service programs and systems created to meet the needs of children. One element to improve the outcomes for children is to establish that engaging fathers of foster children can be important not only for the potential benefit of a child-father relationship but also for making placement decisions and gaining access to resources for the child. A diverse group of n=22 service providers voluntarily became involved in a multi-year participatory action research to explore the value of building capacity to integrate Responsible Fatherhood practices, programs, and/or initiatives within foster care service delivery and other children and youth servicing systems. The results from the study highlight a substantial distinction between baseline and post-evaluation of the agency’s father readiness. The findings suggest that there were significantly higher scores on the father friendly checklist in the areas of leadership, polices &amp; procedures, staff development, parent programming, and fatherhood. The article summarizes key recommendation for social service agencies to develop initiatives that outreach to fathers not only to connect with their children, but to build a broader support network that enhances child safety, permanency and well-being.</p> Jeffrey Shears Rufus Lynch Joshua Kirven Copyright (c) 2019 jeffrey shears, Rufus Lynch, Joshua Kirven 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3017 3028 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.7969 Individual Profiles of Psychological Capital in a Spanish Sample <p>Psychological Capital (PsyCap) consists of hope, self-efficacy, resilience and optimism. It is usually assumed that individuals score similarly across these four components, however, there have been suggestions in the literature that in some cases, people can score high on some dimensions and low on others, and that it is necessary to explore the matter further (Dawkins, 2014). Hence, the main objective of this article is to explore if the relationship between the dimensions of PsyCap results in individual profiles; to see which sociodemographic characteristics they have, and how the profiles relate to job satisfaction and performance. <br>The sample consists of 1752 employees from different companies in Spain. We used Latent Profile Analysis and the results revealed that a four-profile model is the best fit for our data, where Profile 1 was characterized by low self-efficacy and hope, and high resilience and optimism; Profile 2 by high self-efficacy and hope, and low resilience and optimism; Profile 3 by low self-efficacy and high hope, resilience and optimism; and Profile 4 by high scores on all PsyCap constructs. <br>The majority of the sample was classified in Profile 4, showing support for the unitary structure of PsyCap. However, for some individuals scores differed across the four PsyCap dimensions. Furthermore, there were high-low and low-high configurations for hope and self-efficacy on the one hand, and resilience and optimism on the other. Lastly, our results emphasize the combination of hope and self-efficacy as important contributors to employee outcomes.<br><br></p> Nia Plamenova Djourova Isabel Rodríguez Laura Lorente-Prieto Copyright (c) 2019 Nia Plamenova Djourova, Isabel Rodríguez, Laura Lorente-Prieto 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3029 3047 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8042 The Professional Competence Formation of High School Students based on the System Approach. <p>This study addresses the issue of implementing a system approach during the&nbsp; higher school specialists preparation, which effectively leads to their professional competence formation. The study results&nbsp; &nbsp;of higher education teachers professional difficulties in the interaction &nbsp;with the educational process participants are presented. The training technology on the system approach basis creates conditions for the learning process participants’ activities systemic organization, as well as for the system thinking skills and the system approach developing in cognitive, practical and other ongoing and forthcoming activities. An important factor in the future specialists’ professional competence formation&nbsp; is an indicative basis formation for their future professional activity. The professional competence structure and components characteristic are given. Examples are also presented, that demonstrate the professional competence formation implementation with a focus on current society needs. There is a description of the students’ considerable professional competence increase after its formation methods correction.</p> Maral Yessekeshova Isakova Gulnur Seilkhan Gulzhakhar Kaltayeva Gulnar Bermukhambetova Botagoz Copyright (c) 2019 Maral Yessekeshova, Isakova Gulnur, Seilkhan Gulzhakhar, Kaltayeva Gulnar, Bermukhambetova Botagoz 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3057 3064 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8094 Political Dimensions of Weaker Sections Welfare in Local Self Government in India: A Study <p>Soon after independence, the main thrust of Indian Government centered on meeting the basic needs of India’s population which include food, clothing and shelter.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; With this perspective, the national policy makers looked at various measures to alleviate the rural poor.&nbsp; The process of self governance and planning by empowering the people through Panchayati Raj system although started nearly five decades earlier, but 73rd and 74th amendments in the Constitution of India brought an historic change in the process of decentralisation towards the grass root level and participation of people both in the formulation as well as implementation of the plans.&nbsp;&nbsp; The paper explores how the Constitution 73rd Amendment Act (1992), provided certainty, continuity and strength to the PRI’s for the welfare of the weaker sections through Decentralization.&nbsp; Uniform three-tier level of the village, block and district levels, direct elections to all seats and at all levels, indirect elections to chairpersons at intermediate and apex levels.&nbsp; Reservation on rotational basis for SC’s ST’s in proportion to their population, both for membership as well as Chairpersonships of the PRI’s.&nbsp; Not less than one third of the seats and offices reserved for women.&nbsp; The present paper intends to discuss the political participation of weaker sections in panchayat raj institutions in Karnataka in general and in Afjalpur taluk of Gulbarga District in particular as a case study.&nbsp; Finally the paper discusses about the political participation of weaker sections and sought their opinion of their involvement in the process of political, economic development and social justice, with the transfer of the list of Eleventh and the Twelfth Schedule of the Constitution to the rural and urban elected local bodies, and the process of welfare activities for weaker sections through the Panchayat Raj Institutions has been discussed.</p> VALMIKI RAMA KRISHNA Dr. Uddagatti Venkatesha Copyright (c) 2019 VALMIKI RAMA KRISHNA, Dr. Uddagatti Venkatesha 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3122 3135 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8111 SILENCE AS COMMUNICATION: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF CERVICAL CANCER PATIENTS AND CAREGIVERS IN KENYA <p>Managing a serious diagnosis is a complex and challenging process thus effective communication is a critical aspect of cancer management. However, this has not been given the much needed emphasis. This study therefore sought to examine the influence of communication on cancer management. It adopted an interpretivist research paradigm which is a qualitative approach. It employed the phenomenological method to obtain data from cervical patients and their caregivers. Specifically, a range of in-depth interviews and observations were used to collect data from eight patients and eight caregivers purposively sampled within Uasin Gishu County. Data from the interviews were then analyzed thematically and presented in narrative form using paraphrases and quotations. Ethical issues such as informed consent, confidentiality and official authorization were observed at all levels. The findings of the study indicated that the patients and caregiver downplayed their feelings so as to protect themselves and their loved ones. Social cultural factors and stigma also contributed to their silence. It is concluded that silence is draining and patients and caregivers need to be encouraged by medical practitioners, family and the support groups to share their feelings.&nbsp; Based on the findings of this study, it is necessary for the patients and caregivers to have a platform where they will be able to share their experience.&nbsp;</p> Caren jerop Kibiwott Kurgat George Mose Copyright (c) 2019 Caren jerop, Kibiwott Kurgat, George Mose 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3114 3121 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8134 Moderation and Modernism in India’s Nuclear Policy: Post 1974 Era <p>India, after its first nuclear explosion in 1974 moved to modernize and moderate nuclear policy as security environment in the region deteriorated further due to China, pursuing a strategy of&nbsp;containing India by using Pakistan as a surrogate, had supplied technology nuclear materials and<br>warhead designs for the Pakistani bomb. Clearly with Chinese help Pakistani detonated six nuclear&nbsp;devices as follow up of India’s repeat detonation in the second week of May 1998. This development&nbsp; changed the security environment in South Asia forever and this time India convinced the&nbsp;international community that it would not become a destabilising nuclear force in the international&nbsp;system. Thus, in the post-1998 era India adopted two concepts, (i) No first use for attack or war and&nbsp;(ii) Credible minimum deterrence. As a step further in the direction India also signed with the US a&nbsp;nuclear deal under which it agreed to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities under&nbsp;international safeguard and supervision. The paper analyses the evolution of India’s nuclear capability&nbsp;in regional and global contexts.</p> Dr. Rajkumar Singh Hemlata Kumari Copyright (c) 2019 Dr. Rajkumar Singh 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3065 3072 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8147 New tax system for self-employed persons <p>This article focuses on the problem of identification, determination and management the results of the activities of self-employed citizens. People become self-employed either intentionally because they leave work and improve the welfare on their own or because of the lack of money, low wages, and constant price increase. This is just a little list of reasons why people are seeking secondary earnings. The decision to legalize self-employment and on income tax registration of them had become necessary because the government of the Russian Federation intended to include self-employment in the legitimate economic system and increase confidence in tax audit and in question about source of income which is not subject to tax. &nbsp;‘Self-employed person’ is not too far removed from ‘entrepreneur’, according to foreign study. That is why there is not a clear separation between these words. However, entrepreneur is most often considered as a person who desires to develop own business and has to invest a lot in the early stages. ‘Self-employed’ is a person who plans to work independently without recruitment and any transactions not only in the early stages but thereafter. There is a well-argued conclusion that innovation of the Russian Ministry of Finance is aimed at primarily increase in fees. It remains to be seen if this novation will improve the situation for self-employed persons.</p> Elena Sergeevna Kulikova Maya Ivanovna Lvova Olga Anatolyevna Rykalina Copyright (c) 2019 Elena Sergeevna Kulikova, Maya Ivanovna Lvova, Olga Anatolyevna Rykalina 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3073 3080 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8155 Is the criminal justice system blind to race and ethnicity?: The case of fatal work accidents in the construction industry <p>Despite growing media and public interest in recent years in the issue of fatal work accidents in the construction industry, there in fact has been an upswing in the number of fatalities. The construction industry is a dangerous industry for workers, and about half of the fatal work accidents in Israel take place there. This study was designed to examine how the law enforcement system handles cases of fatal work accidents, where most of the workers are foreign workers. The article examines whether there is a difference in the criminal procedures between work accidents and road accidents, which are not identified with a particular demographic sector. The study findings showed that there is a significant link between the type of fatal accident and the identity of the victim, and the decisions made during the criminal proceedings for a fatal work accident as compared to a fatal road accident. The findings partially correspond with the assumptions of the Marxist structural school of victimology, which sees a relationship between the victim's social status and the way the criminal justice system handles the case. Although based on a relatively small sample, these findings indicate that there is a need to substantially strengthen and regulate the investigative and criminal aspects of the treatment of fatal work accidents in the construction industry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> efrat shoham Eitan Nictora Copyright (c) 2019 efrat shoham, Eitan Nictora 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3081 3097 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8156 Modern approaches to the rationing of managerial labor <p>Article deals with the modern management problem associated with improving the accuracy of the ration of managerial work. Emphasis is on the need to move from the rationing of the working day to the rationing of individual labor functions (operations). The subject of the article is contradictions arising in the process of integration of quantitative and qualitative methods of research of the work process. The main purpose of the article is to create the author's concept of overcoming contradictions between the existing methods of regulation managerial labor and the practical need of enterprises in developing these norms. Concept is based on the synthesis of quantitative and qualitative methods. The methodological framework of the study consists of the concept of foreign and domestic researchers involved in the issues of labor rationing and management efficiency. The problem of the article lies in the fact that the existing approaches to standards of management personnel are not sufficiently adapted to solving problems in conditions of intellectual labor. The cause of the problem is seen as the need of enterprises to improve the efficiency of not individual employees involved in management issues, but of the entire business process management. In combination with the totality of such general scientific and special methods of cognition, such as dialectical, systemic, descriptive, theoretical modeling, the article offers approaches to eliminate this contradiction. The main conclusion of the article is the necessity of application of two-stage approaches to the valuation of managerial work, where the first phase involves a qualitative analysis of the structure of the business process, is conducted after the close study of the cost of labor in the performance of these functions. The article defines the limitations of the application of this method and offers recommendations for its integration with methods of studying the cost of working time. As the resulting conclusions, it is proposed to apply not for all business processes but for the most significant for the organization. This method will optimize the costs of rationing, and explore only the largest (and, accordingly, costly) business processes for an organization. The basis of this method is the ranking system proposed in the article. It is also insisted that in modern management practice it is inappropriate to control individual participants in a business process (jobs). It is necessary to standardize the entire business process with its further distribution among the performers.</p> Rinat Tavzikhovich Latypov Dmitry Nikolaevich Yadransky Elena Vasilievna Chumak Copyright (c) 2019 Rinat Tavzikhovich Latypov, Dmitry Nikolaevich Yadransky, Elena Vasilievna Chumak 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3098 3103 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8157 Factors Contributing To Low Sanitation Coverage In Mutare Rural Ward 15 Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe <p>The research was carried out to investigate the causes of low sanitation and hygiene coverage in Mutare rural ward 15 in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe. The study aimed at establishing factors contributing to low sanitation and hygiene coverage as well as determining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the community members on sanitation and hygiene. The study was carried out in Mutare rural Ward 15. The community members and programme implementers were selected as study elements. Information was gathered using focus group discussion, interviews and observations. Data collected was presented quantitatively using tables and also qualitatively, providing facts. The stratified and purposive probability sampling was used to draw out household members in the study population. Other subjects in the research included 2 sanitation and hygiene programme implementers, one from Ministry of Health &amp; Child Care and Mutare rural Ward 15 Councilor respectively. The research findings revealed that, low sanitation and hygiene was due to, the community’s negative attitude towards sanitation and hygiene programs, their cultural values, inadequate resources, lack of supervision, as well as the type of soil. This study concluded that knowledge, attitudes and practices of the community, inadequate supervision and resources as well as the type of soil contributed to low sanitation and hygiene coverage. The research therefore recommended that, the community be adequately educated and be provided with enough resources so as to increase coverage in sanitation and hygiene</p> Whatmore Chikwature Emilia Chikwature Copyright (c) 2019 Whatmore Chikwature, Emilia Chikwature 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 14 3104 3113 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8163 Comparative Psychology of Children Who Experience Intra-familial Versus Extra-familial Victimization <p>This study is based on secondary analysis from a sample of individuals attending colleges in the United States.&nbsp; It is an examination of links between childhood victimization and subsequent depression.&nbsp; An assessment of the effect on depression of intra- and extra-familial victimization was made to identify the means by which each affects depression.&nbsp; It was hypothesized that victimization affects subsequent depression through its damaging impact on the development of social resources and personal resources, including family support, peer support, self-esteem, and mastery.&nbsp; It was hypothesized that the importance of each mediator in explaining the link between victimization and depression differs by the type of victimization experienced.&nbsp; To test these hypotheses, a series of hierarchical regression analyses were performed.&nbsp; Findings indicate that victimization by non-family is related to depression independent of victimization by family, but victimization by family is not related to depression independent of victimization by non-family.&nbsp; The resource variables demonstrated disparate mediating influences; each produced a different sized reduction in the strength of relationship between extra-familial victimization and depression.&nbsp;</p> Paul Muller Copyright (c) 2019 Paul Muller 2019-03-25 2019-03-25 14 3114 3122 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8174 The Indonesian Wage Law <p>Work in Islamic law based on the Qur'an and Hadith, is an obligation and has the right to get a job. The Qur'an is very opposed to acts of lazy, wasting time, and not doing things that are not productive. Someone must work to work as well as possible to get his salary, while for employers must pay a decent wage, in recognition of the work performance of workers. The national wage system is regulated in Act Number 13 Year 2003 about Manpower, from the aspect of formalities, has guaranteed the rights and obligations of workers and employers. But from the substance aspect, workers are paid cheap wages for various reasons. To achieve a decent wage for productive workers, it must be supported by good, harmonious and moral cooperation between employers and workers. Both parties are one entity in carrying out workers, not as parties with training positions. Standards for both parties, in addition to national law, also adhere to Islamic values ??based on the Qur'an and Hadith.</p> Zulkarnain Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2019 Zulkarnain Ibrahim 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 14 3123 3133 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.7988 “My First Year in The University”: Students’ Expectations, Perceptions and Experiences <p>This study aimed to explore students’ first year experience to provide insights that may prove to be useful for institutional policy and practice. A semi-structured interview was conducted on 30 undergraduates from a private university to examine their perceptions, experiences, and attitudes towards first year experience. Themes were derived from the analysis of the transcribed interview transcripts. The results showed that in general students pursue tertiary education as it can guarantee their career prospect and intellectual development. Moreover, classroom engagement and academic staff engagement on students were less crucial in comparison to peer engagement. However, the students’ perceptions of studentship and quality of teaching were positive. Lastly, most students were satisfied with their first year experience in the university. Practical implications, recommendations and limitations for future practice are put forth</p> Kam-Fong Lee Chin-Siang Ang Genevieve Dipolog-Ubanan Copyright (c) 2019 Kam-Fong Lee, Chin-Siang Ang, Genevieve Dipolog-Ubanan 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 14 3134 3145 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8006 Indigenous Employment Policy and Foreign-Owned Corporation Employee’s Well-Being in Liberia <p>Every country institutes policy to take a course of action in favour of its citizens’ welfare. The view of indigenization policy in alignment with employment and workers treatment in Liberia takes different dimension. Liberia problem of unemployment cannot be compared to its underemployment and bad working conditions. The Liberian Indigenous policy has not reaped its fruit with marginalization, exploitation dispossession and poverty in commonplace. This study addresses the ineffectiveness of the indigenous employment policy and the state of workers’ well-being in foreign corporations in Liberia. This study adopts cross sectional method, and employs primary data. Information from 400 employees working with foreign-owned corporation was extracted from survey conducted in 2018 by the authors on the state of welfare of foreign-owned corporations’ employees in Liberia. The key explanatory variables are healthcare, social insurance, safety measures, stable job assignment, stable work hour, promotion on the job, and job security. The binary logistic regression was applied using version 22 of SPSS to examine association between the response and explanatory variables. The outcomes of this study showed that indigenous environmental policy was significant with worker’s well-being (p&lt;0.05). The study concluded that indigenous employment policy has significant influence on the foreign-owned corporation workers’ well-being in Liberia.</p> Taofik Olatunji Bankole Daniel Denny Gray Abiodun Oluwaseun Oyebode Gbelimu Elizabeth Lawal Copyright (c) 2019 Taofik Olatunji Bankole, Daniel Denny GRAY, Abiodun Oluwaseun OYEBODE, Gbelimu Elizabeth LAWAL 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 14 3146 3160 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8108 Factors Affecting Physical Activity Participation Among University Students <p>The Physical activities are indispensable to be healthy and away from illness, yet, students ignoring it. The factors affecting physical activity participation among university students in the Philippines examined in this study. Modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire adopted, Stata 13 and SPSS utilized to justify the objectives of study on a 470 samples. Findings revealed that participants who do physical activity for 3 days and accumulating at least 1500 metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) minutes per week or with combination of walking, moderate or vigorous intensity activities accumulating at least 3000 MET minutes were classified as highly active. Other participants were categorized as moderately active and low active/inactive. The results identified that lack of time due to busy lesson schedule was the most significant factors for not participating in physical activity among the samples. Priority on academic success over exercise was the most identified item that hinders individual to participate in physical activities. Thus, recommended the replication of this study to increase the generalizability of achieved results</p> Solomon Oluyinka Anatalia Endozo Copyright (c) 2019 Solomon Oluyinka, Anatalia Endozo 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 14 3161 3170 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8142 Under Critical Scrutiny A Normal Task for Swedish Executive Municipal Healthcare Managers <p>Swedish Human Service Organisations (HSOs) operate under high demands of transparency. In this study, executive municipal healthcare managers’ dealings with the Media were mapped. 81% had experiences of dealing with the Media under critical scrutiny. 20% of the respondents were aware of whether their organisation had a media strategy. The respondents received support during media scrutiny mainly from their management team, subordinates, family and friends. The respondents who received support from their management team or the communication department felt that the depiction of their organisation was more correct. The results indicate that a strategy including activities from the management team or the communication department would contribute to managers feeling more satisfied with media depictions of their organisation.</p> Maria Wramsten Wilmar Christian Jacobsson Jeremy Ray Lotta Dellve lena Låstad Copyright (c) 2019 Maria Wramsten Wilmar, Christian Jacobsson, Jeremy Ray, Lotta Dellve, lena Låstad 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 14 3171 3179 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8180 Does Financial Flexibility Matter for Firm’s Finance Policy? Evidence from Swedish High -Tech Firms: Case Study of Ericsson <p>This paper explores why high-tech firms with high credit quality are more likely to have external finance, and if the securing funding is related to financial flexibility. &nbsp;Many earlier studies have shown that it is valuable for firms to choose financial policies that keep financial flexibility to respond to negative shocks in the form of unexpected periods of insufficient resources. However, the complexity and unpredictability in high?tech business make the flexibility in finance more valuable to face an increasingly unpredictable environment and to grow into a hugely profitable. Degree of financial flexibility has estimated in three different models based on leverage to investigate whether the flexibility degree affects the company’s ability and to find out the driving factor in financial flexibility indicators. By using financial data from annual reports of the Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company “Ericson” during the period 2007 to 2016, the results provide evidence that the high-tech company has a high access to capital markets due to its low leverage and keeping an equity ratio over 45% which supporting the hypothesis that financial flexibility matter and has influence on the firm's ability to get access and restructure its financing.</p> Eatessam Al-Shakrchyai Walaa Ismael Alnassar Copyright (c) 2019 Eatessam Al-Shakrchyai, Walaa’ Ismael Alnassar 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 14 3180 3191 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8177 The Power of Interpersonal Communication Skill in Enhancing Service Provision <p>One of interpersonal soft skill is a skill of interpersonal communication; that is the focus of this research. The purpose of this paper are defined in two parts. First, to explore the interpersonal communication skills of the educational staff. Second, to recognize the power of this interpersonal communication. The research of this paper has been studied by means of qualitative method. The approach of this study is a sequences of in-depth interviews with 4 informants of each faculty with A credit for accreditation examination result. This research result finds that there are 3 interpersonal communication skills of educational staff area. Secondly, there are power of the interpersonal communication skill which have made improvement to service providing in the work unit. The results of this research also explain whether maintaining interpersonal relationship enhances &nbsp;the service providing.</p> Roziana Febrianita Susi Hardjati Copyright (c) 2019 Roziana Febrianita, Susi Hardjati 2019-04-10 2019-04-10 14 3192 3199 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8150 Opportunities for Improving Mechanisms of Sustainable Social Sphere Development of The Rural Areas of The Republic of Kazakhstan <p>The development of the socio-economic territories’ level is gradually decreasing. The young people flow from rural areas to large cities is increasing, social and household infrastructure is destroyed, ecological and demographic situations get worse. Rural workers’ wages are lower than in other industries. It is necessary to improve domestic and socio-economic conditions in rural areas so that to reform the decent living standard of country people.The rural areas’ social sphere needs to address the existing problems, related to life level and quality, the need to ensure a favorable social environment, especially in education and health care systems, vocational training, and the possibility of inclusion in the society labor potential.</p> Laura Bokenchina Nurgaliyeva Almagul Ismailova Diana Copyright (c) 2019 Laura Bokenchina, Nurgaliyeva Almagul, Ismailova Diana 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 14 3200 3206 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8162 Measurement of Country Specific Internationalisation in China: India Study Centre Questionnaire <p>The India Study Centre Questionnaire (ISCQ) has been developed to measure the level of internationalisation of higher education (IHE) with reference to India at the India Study centres in China. The concept of IHE has been constructed on the basis of the significantly correlated themes that emerged from the academic research literatures (N=36). The correlation among the emergent themes (N=52) comprising the components of the IHE was tested on the basis of a text analysis. The themes were itemised in accordance with the Ontological or Existentialist, Phenomenological or Instrumentalist, Propositional or Imagistic approaches of conceptualisation with an intent to satisfy the Evaluative or Normative need of the theoretical framework of this study. The designed instrument (ISCQ) devised on the emergent themes was administered on the students (N=28) of India study centre of Peking University, Beijing to test the reliability and validity of the instrument. In order to test and retest the robust validity of the instrument (ISCQ) two more rounds of piloting the questionnaire would be required. Five extensive interviews were conducted with the faculties to validate the structure and content of the ISCQ. However, owing to politico-academic sensitivity, approaching the respondents would need formal consent from the authorities of the institutions in context. Interviews were conducted with five teachers of country specific study centres from prominent institutions.</p> Chandu Lal Chandrakar Copyright (c) 2019 Chandu Lal Chandrakar 2019-05-30 2019-05-30 14 3207 3233 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8263 The Practice And Challenges of Practicum Implementation Program at A Malaysian Teacher Education Institute <p style="margin: 0px 0px 16px; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">This study </span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">is </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">set to </span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">assess</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;"> the </span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">practice and </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">challenges faced by TESL students at a local teacher training institute during their first practicum practices at selected Malaysian primary schools. This research is of significant value, as the </span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">17</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;"> student- teachers’ experiences need to be made known; the findings on the transitional move from a safe protected college environment into the unknown territory of school surroundings. Each of these trainee</span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">-</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">teachers had leapt into the role of a teacher in the 21<sup>st</sup> century language class. They would each maintain daily and weekly reflective journals throughout their practicum period to document their teaching concerns and the level of confidence they put into their abilities to teach and manage their primary school students. These findings</span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;"> from the</span> <span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">q</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">uestionnaires w</span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">ere</span> <span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">reported</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">.</span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;"> The data obtained from the study participants were analyzed qualitatively.</span> <span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">The results of the study reveal that:- i) student-teachers have positive perception towards the role of practicum program in promoting their pedagogical skills as well as subject matter knowledge; ii) school mentors failed in providing the necessary support for practicum student-teachers. </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">This research </span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">enables</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;"> to shed more light into the areas of second language teaching in the classroom as the findings would be able to provide more support for future management and development of teacher education. Furthermore, these student-teachers </span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">could</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;"> understand themselves better throughout the month extended practicum. The ability to self-monitor and self-appraise themselves are valuable skills to be acquired by these student-teachers for their personal and autonomous </span><span lang="EN-MY" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">and </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">continuous self-assessments to become effective second language teachers. </span></span></p> Ramesh Sathappan Premaraj Gurusamy Copyright (c) 2019 Ramesh Sathappan, Premaraj Gurusamy 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 14 3234 3243 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8324 India Maritime Strategy Towards China <p>The strategic value of Indian Ocean has invited lots of attention from a major power.&nbsp; For India, the Indian Ocean shows its domain and obvious superiority that it has held for some centuries. However, there seem to be an arise from China presence in the region. This action has prompted India as the leading actor in the area and created a diversified approach to mitigating the issue.&nbsp; How should India respond to this? What would be the impact of this phenomenon on India maritime strategy? Is China presence should be defined as a threat for India to continue its ambition as a prospect dominant global key player, or it produces opportunity that India should grab in order to remain relevant in Indian Ocean perspective. The objective of this article is to discuss the actions taken by India to enhance its national interest in the India Ocean. This qualitative approach has using secondary data from 2010- 2018. The finding of this study are 1) India has come out with a maritime strategy to counterbalance China, 2) the Act east policy appeared to be a soft power for India to pursuit more strategic goals as compared to the previous Look East policy which seems to be typically rhetoric and concentrated on economic friendship, 3) India continues to develop cooperation with the superpower and major power countries such as the United States, Australia and Japan.</p> Noraini Zulkafli Mohd Ezrisyah Md Shah Copyright (c) 2019 Noraini Zulkafli @ Zulkifli, Mohd Ezrisyah Md Shah 2019-07-23 2019-07-23 14 3244 3251 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8342 Religion as A Determinant of Voter Behavbiour: An Analysis Of The Relation Between Religious Inclination And Voting Pattern In Cross River State, Nigeria <p>Religion and politics are two very important aspects of human society anywhere in the world. While religion addresses and conditions man’s spiritual balance, politics shapes the practice of religion and determine who gets what, when and how (Lasswell, 1958) in any given political setting. The belief in the supernatural can make people to resist any perceived attempt to distort one’s religious belief. An attempt to sustain one’s religion on the other hand can determine the way one acts in the electoral process. In other words, the notion that a favourable polity guarantees the liberty to exercise freely one’s religious rituals can influence the attitude and the way people act in deciding who should govern them. Religion and politics have come to be inseparable in man’s quest for political power. In some societies, religion has been exploited to promote ascendancy to state power. This study assesses the relationship between religion and voter behavior in Cross River State, Nigeria and whether religious consideration influenced the voting direction of electorates in the 2011, 2015 and 2019 general elections. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism and segregate Pentecostalism in Nigeria’s religious behaviour justifies this study. The research hypothesizes that religious inclination tends not to have significant effect on the voting pattern in Cross River State. Data was collected through a questionnaire from Christian churches and mosques in five locations in the state. Respondents sample size of 1,000 was got from the five locations covering the three senatorial districts. Data generated was analysed with frequency count, percentages and barcharts. The results show that respondents voted along religious lines in the 2011, 2015 and 2019 general elections. Factors such as adherence to religious principles, pressure from religious superiors, denominational considerations accentuated this behavior. The study recommends among others that voter education should be intensified by civil society organizations on the danger of voting along with religious considerations.</p> Uno Jim Agbor Copyright (c) 2019 Uno Jim Agbor 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 14 3252 3267 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8357 Nutritious or Delicious? <p>Unhealthy eating habits involving the consumption of highly-palatable energy-dense foods are a major contributor to weight gain its associated health conditions. Consumption of these “unhealthy” items continues to be common despite ongoing efforts for promoting healthy-eating behavior. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead to the consumption of unhealthy foods. Prior research has shown that states of hunger influence the desire to eat without changing the perception or enjoyment of food items. The present study utilized an online-survey which asked participants to rate foods according to the items’ palatability, likelihood of being consumed, and healthiness. Demographic and bodily state information was also collected. The results of this study demonstrate that, in college students, a state of hunger biases the selection (“wanting”) of foods toward highly-palatable (“tasty”) food items. However, this finding was not observed in data gathered from a sample of older adults affiliated with a health and fitness organization. Collectively, this may suggest that age, education, or increased health-awareness can influence the preference for high-palatable foods that occurs when individuals are hungry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Luke Ayers Vasilios C Ikonomou Copyright (c) 2019 Luke Ayers, Vasilios C Ikonomou 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 14 3268 3281 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8391 The The Determinants Impacts on The Profitability of The Vietnamese Commercial Banks in The Periods of 2010 To 2017 <p>The study location only resides in Vietnam with a focused group of all 28 commercial banks in Vietnam. The main source of statistics for this testing will come and be collected directly from the financial statement of all financial institutions for 2010 and 2017. In term of panel data analysis, this should require for the Hausman test in term of differentiation between fixed effects model and random effects model (Sheytanova, 2015). This should ensure the accuracy of the test result in term of the hypothesis testing’s power and size as well as in term of obtaining the consistent result. The result will be conducted in term of for each dependent variables and one for collaboration of all dependent variables. For the purpose of the T-test results, we will have to look at the t-statistic, t-distribution and degrees of freedom to determine a p-value (probability) which can also be utilized to determine whether the population means differ. The result expects to have the size of the bank indicating no influence but all other dependent variables shall have impacts on the profitability of the bank in term of financial performance. For the purpose of this thesis, the ultimate problem to be addressed and examined in term of the development of financial institutions in Vietnam for the fiscal year of 2010 and 2017. The element of financial data will be able to add and accompany the ultimate purpose of this thesis. The determination and factors contributing to the profitability of all commercial bank in Vietnam for the course of the year from 2010 to 2017 will be assessed and review in this thesis. After the analysing main determinants of banks’ profitability in Vietnam’s 28 commercial banks that we can conclude that the empirical findings are consistent with the expected results from the T-test above. The result expects to have the internal and external factors of credit and liquidity risk, management efficiency, the market concentration as well as competition and the local economic growth of all commercial banks reflecting in their and return of asset for profitability ratio.&nbsp; As a policy recommendation for management and authorities of the banks, I propose an enhancement in term of supervision for credit and liquidity risk of banks (especially in term of implementation of Basel II) and the inspiring of banking competition and introduction of the products. For banks’ management level of decision making, I also indorse to monitor the credit and liquidity risk indicators, to expand the sources of revenues and to improve costs from operations perspectives. The limitation will be on the secondary source of data as well as the selection of determinants being on the previous studies and works of literature but no in the Vietnam market. As a future direction of research, I intend to deepen the analysis by extending the period as well as expanding the comparison to other developing countries in the region.</p> Khiem Dieu Truong Copyright (c) 2019 Khiem Dieu Truong 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 14 3282 3303 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8384 The Influence of New Media Technologies On Nambale Sub County Folklore <p style="background: white; margin: 0in 0in 13.6pt 0in;">New media technologies have had a tremendous impact on Nambale folk media (folklore) productions. By utilizing the technologies, folklorists have the ability to reach out directly to their fans, which creates a closer community between the two sides. With revolutions in both crowd funding, digital releases, and mobile payment technology, folk media fans also have vastly increased opportunities to consume folk media products such as songs, drama, plays in the ways they wish. Unfortunately, new media technologies have also brought about changes in folk music industry that are not as beneficial to either musicians or fans. With social media taking such a key role in how bands market themselves, they now have to worry not only about the music they create, but also how to sell that music to people. It’s not good enough anymore to create good art; folk musicians also need to know how to effectively get people to pay attention to it. New media technologies, and how they are used is a complicated issue for everyone, and this is true within folk music as well. It has brought huge improvements in some areas, but also unfortunate consequences in others. As with all things related to social media, the best way to look at these changes is to embrace the positive aspects while trying to find ways overcome, or at least live with, the negative.</p> Jonai Wabwire Copyright (c) 2019 Jonai Wabwire 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 14 3304 3312 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8191 A Conflict Profile On The Rohingya Conflict in Myanmar <p>‘Rohingya’- world’s most persecuted minority group came to the attention of the international media again in the mid of 2017 due to the brutality they were experiencing in their homeland by the state authority of Myanmar. Now they are being labeled as the ‘perpetual other’ of Myanmar and as the ‘Bengali intruders’ by the society regardless of being the inhabitants in the Rakhine state for centuries (The Diplomat 2017). &nbsp;As a result of this Bangladesh experienced the largest surge of displaced people into its border after its independence. They are ‘culturally discriminated, economically exploited and politically sidelined’ and are being discerned by the Arakan people as a threat to their national identity and an additional competitor for the natural resources (Wolf 2015). It is widely believed that the reason of the violent crackdown of the military against the ‘Rohingya’ community in the Arakan state is either religiously or ethnically motivated. But this is only a splinter part of the entire truth. These violent atrocities against the Rohingya community is more politically and economically motivated than religiously and ethnically. This paper will focus on the causes of the present crisis which started to unveil since 2017 and how these are linked with the interest of the different stakeholders like: the Military junta of Myanmar, Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), ASEAN, Bangladesh, Indian government, China, the UN, etc. To understand the causes and the effects of the conflict this paper will use the tool of ‘conflict tree’ and the ‘conflict onion’ will be used as a tool to understand the positions, needs and interests of different actors.</p> Md. Tareq Mahmud Copyright (c) 2019 Md. Tareq Mahmud 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 14 3313 3324 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8407 Community Psychology Perspective on Ecological Issues: Based on Psychological Intervention <p>The purpose of the current literature review is to clarify the important role of community psychology regarding ecological issues and illustrated its critical function based on psychological intervention. The results of this investigation explained that community psychology as one of the essential fields of psychology, has substantial involvement on ecological issues and it can examine these issues based on psychological intervention. In truth, these ecological issues that some of them explained in this study (child maltreatment, drug addiction, school dropping out, and teen pregnancy) have been examined based on the psychological aspect for finding best solution way from the side of expert psychologists and counselors. Consequently, this research focused on teenagers that face with community issue via different ways, and should be considered by parents, schools, society, and government in every community and country; otherwise, it will appear any inconvenient behaviors and reactions amongst teenagers.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aida Mehrad Copyright (c) 2019 Aida Mehrad 2019-09-07 2019-09-07 14 3331 3335 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8415 Social Work in The Greek Schools: A Review of Policy Texts <p>Social work is an applied science that finds application in a multitude of fields, health, education, social protection, protection of the elderly, addiction, human rights, etc. Specifically, in the field of education both in America and in European countries, the social worker has an active presence in schools in various forms. This article will analyze the evolution of the role of the social worker in education in Greece through the study of the legislative framework from 1975 to 2018.</p> Georgia Eleni Lempesi Copyright (c) 2019 Georgia Eleni Lempesi 2019-09-07 2019-09-07 14 3325 3330 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8416 Impacts of Blended Learning on Students’ Vocabulary Enhancement <p>This critique examines three studies about the impact of blended learning on students’ vocabulary enhancement. The name of the author of the first article is Sezen Tosun. The article is entitled as “The effects of blended learning on EFL students’ vocabulary enhancement.” It was published by Elsevier Ltd-Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 (2015) 641 – 647. The second article is “Enhancement of Students' Vocabulary Learning through a Blended Learning Approach”. The authors of this article are Dinara G. Vasbieva, Irina I. Klimova, Elena L. Agibalova, Natalya V. Karzhanova, and Jana Bírová. The article accessed on IEJME-Mathematics Education on look academic publishers (open access), VOL. 11, NO. 5, 1195-1203 in 2016. The last article is a study about “A Blended Learning Approach to Enhance College Students’ Vocabulary Learning”. It is written by Djiwandono, and released on 2013, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 210–220 from Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching. The credentials of the authors are not specifically stated in the articles except Vasbieva et al. &nbsp;The central argument of the articles was to investigate the effects of the blended learning approach to teach and learn English vocabulary. Therefore, this critique was designed to produce a systematic review of studies contrasting vocabulary learning outcomes for either blended learning conditions or with those of full face-to-face classroom instruction.</p> Sisay Ayalew Copyright (c) 2019 Sisay Ayalew 2019-09-21 2019-09-21 14 3331 3336 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8424 Gender Audit for Gender Mainstreaming of Coastal and Marine Fishing Community of India <p>Fisherwomen constitute 47% of the total adult coastal and marine fishing populations in India.&nbsp; They share major contributions in the fishing of their families either directly or indirectly, especially in post-harvest and land based activities.&nbsp; They have also been involved in passive fishing such as seaweed gathering, mussel collection, and prawn capturing in nearshore coastal ecosystems.&nbsp; The activities performed by fisherwomen in fishing are diverse and different from those of men but significant for the livelihood of their families.&nbsp; Fisherwomen activities amount high in the share of economic contribution to coastal fishing in India.&nbsp; The work performance of fisherwomen in fishing-related activities is un-recognized or under-recognized.&nbsp; Gender biased discrimination such as access to resources, control over family; consumption pattern and freedom for domestic expenditure are prevalent in their family and community. Gender mainstreaming activities of the Government are merely recognized by the fishing community.&nbsp; Gender inequality slows down economic development and deepens poverty in the fishing community. Inadequate recognition of fisherwomen’s contribution in fisheries shall hamper the sustainable development process.&nbsp;</p> <p>Gender equality is a basic of human rights, and its achievement shall bring many long term positive changes in human development and socio-economic progress.&nbsp; A gender audit assesses the extent to which gender equality is effectively institutionalized in the policies, programs, schemes and in the corresponding budgets.&nbsp; To measure the gender gap in coastal fisheries in India, Gender Inequality Index (GII) has been studied.&nbsp; Accordingly, GII in fisheries is 0.618, which is comparatively higher than that of the National average (0.563).&nbsp; This paper discusses the gender gaps in fisheries and requisite gender mainstream activities for fisherwomen empowerment.</p> Devaraj Asir Ramesh M.V. Bindu Nagarathinam Karthi Copyright (c) 2019 Devaraj Asir Ramesh, M.V. Bindu, Nagarathinam Karthi 2019-10-22 2019-10-22 14 3337 3355 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8455 Print Media and the Political Reform in Ethiopia <p>This research examines the agenda and frames used by the Reporter newspaper editorial coverage of issues and actors before and after the reform in Ethiopia. The study applies a quantitative content analysis method and examined 99 (Period 1 = 57 and Period 2 = 42) editorials in all periods. The source of data and the period of data collection were purposely selected. The results indicated that societal issues, government, and party issues were frequent in both periods. The professional journalist was the only Author in both periods. More government criticism and more reforms were mentioned before the reform. Compared with editorials published before and after the reform, noticeable changes were observed in government critique, attribution of responsibility frames, human interest frames and economic issue frames. However, content selection, sources of information, mentioned reforms, conflict relationship frames, and ideological frames didn’t have relationship with the date of publication. Finally, the Reporter editorials coverage did change significantly in many respects, although it is difficult to determine the causes of the changes—economic factors, reduced political control, social changes or globalization forces.</p> Negesse Gessese Copyright (c) 2019 Negesse Gessese 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 14 3356 3371 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8466 The Growing Power Struggle in Indian Ocean Region: Security Road Map for Bangladesh <p>The Indian Ocean Region (IOR) is rising significantly as the center stage for world politics in the current century. Due to the geostrategic and economic importance, the region has created conflicts in strategic interest leading to power confrontation among regional and extra-regional powers resulting in security threats for small littorals like Bangladesh. Some of the threats are influential attachments of the powerful states in foreign, trade, economy and defense sectors, poor regional security architecture and an increase of non-traditional security threats. Analyzing the issues reveals that, Bangladesh can navigate these challenges by playing strategic hedging, pursuing multilateralism, recalibrating trade and economic engagements, and comprehensive drive by government agencies to deal with non-traditional security threats<em>. </em></p> Tharishini Krishnan Abu Sadat Mahmud Safeer Inderjit Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Tharishini Krishnan, Abu Sadat Mahmud Safeer, Inderjit Singh 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 14 3372 3379 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8470 Role of Conflict Management Styles on Managers’ Self-Efficiency at Iranian Schools in Tehran Province <p>The importance of management in different segments of workplace and monitoring of organizational behaviours that appear from managers is supercritical and should be considered increasingly. In some cases, the manager may be faced with different issues and difficulties in the management process, and the level of his/ her performance, and efficiency decreases; furthermore, concentrating more on various aspects of the management when the conflict happened is extremely extensive. By the way, the present research focused on the role of conflict management styles on self-efficiency amongst 259 mangers (men and women) who worked at governmental schools in Tehran Province, Iran. Moreover, the researcher collected the data via two questionnaires; which comprised The Conflict Management Questionnaire, which is proposed by Izadi Yazdan Abadi, and The Self-Efficiency Scale that is developed by Sherer. The findings derived from data analyzing in SPSS Software and illustrated there is a significant relationship between conflict management styles with mangers' self-efficiency at school. Additionally, the styles of conflict management included five main styles such as Accommodating, Avoidance, Collaboration, Competing, and Compromising that have a meaningful relationship with Self-Efficiency. The results shown that Collaboration has a positive association with mangers' self-efficiency and increases its level; on the other hand, Avoidance has a negative relation with the efficiency of managers at schools. Besides, with using styles of conflict management in the correct way that obtain via knowing them perfectly, managers can improve their efficiency and achievement; correspondingly, they endeavor to cope with difficulties and issues at the workplace.</p> Aida Mehrad Copyright (c) 2019 Aida Mehrad 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 14 3390 3397 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8524 The Impact of an Educational Support Program on Formal Caregivers of Elderly People with Dementia in the Institutional Context <p>With the aging of the population and the increase of social services tackling their needs, it has been increasing the concern about the qualifications of formal caregivers, with the aim of continuous improvement of the quality of the services they provide to the elderly. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of an educational support program on formal caregivers of elderly people with dementia in an institutional context. It follows a quasi-experimental design where the 97 formal caregivers that have participated in the study came from two different institutions. They were randomly selected to participate in an educational support program on dementia, with two groups formed: a control group and an experimental group. Pre and post-training tests were used to evaluate knowledge and perceptions about dementia in old age. Findings suggest that the impact of the educational support program has improved knowledge and perceptions about dementia in old age among formal caregivers.</p> Alexandra Miranda Maria Isabel Dias Alexandra Cristina Lopes Gunes Copyright (c) 2019 Alexandra Miranda, Maria Isabel Dias, Alexandra Cristina Lopes Gunes 2019-11-27 2019-11-27 14 3398 3407 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8496 An Assessment of the Implementation of Integrated Task Focused Adult Education Program in Estie Woreda: Challenges and Opportunities <p>This study was conducted to assess the implementation of task integrated focused adult education program (ITFAEP) in Estie woreda: South Gondar Zone.&nbsp; The study also sought to assess the challenges face and opportunities for effective implementation of this program. Mixed methods design was employed for the study and both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used. The participants of the study were 6 woreda adult education professionals, 33 cluster school supervisors, 114 ITFAEP facilitators, and 48 adult learners. The sampling technique used to select these participants was comprehensive sampling technique for the first three participants (150 in number). The 48 adult learners were selected first by cluster then by lottery system sampling technique. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data while qualitative data were collected through interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis. All selected participants were participated in giving responses to the questionnaire except adult learners. Interviews were held with the 6 woreda adult education professionals and 8 cluster school supervisors. The adult learners were participant for the focus group discussion. The documents of 11 ITFAEP facilitators were analyzed using checklist in the form of yes/no. The responses for interviews and the focus group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed. The gathered data were analyzed quantitatively (tabulation, percentage and mean) and qualitatively by narration. The result of the study indicated that ITFAEP was not being implemented effectively. It was only in report that the program was effective, but the reality did not show the implementation of the program.&nbsp; Both adult learners and their facilitators had no internal interest and motivation to learn and teach well. Though the participants mentioned some fertile grounds such as the increasing of regular students in the villages of adult learners, the current high attention is given to the program by ministry of education and the supply of textbooks for adult learners, the number and degree of the challenges they mentioned were much more than the opportunities. It is found out that adults’ workload, absence of continuous follow-up and support and lack of adequate training were among the major factors hindering the implementation of the program. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the board and technical committee at woreda and kebele level should provide further training for facilitators on the way how to teach adults effectively. Well organized awareness creation should be done to enhance the interest and motivation of adults and facilitators.&nbsp; Finally, to minimize and gradually solve the problems encountered in the effective implementation of the program, continuous and extensive orientations and training, in the form of workshops and seminars should be offered to cluster supervisors, school principals, and facilitators. Moreover, all stakeholders of the program should try their best for the realization of the program.</p> Yihunie Alemayehu Copyright (c) 2019 yihunie 2019-11-28 2019-11-28 14 3408 3441 10.24297/jssr.v14i0.8513