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KHALSA PUBLICATIONS en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE 2349-0837 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> Impact of Biochar and Different Nitrogen Sources on Forage Radish Production in Middle Tennessee http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8035 <p>Short-season forage radish (<em>Raphanus sativus</em> L. var. longipinnatus) has recently gained great popularity in Middle Tennessee and many parts of the world used as a high-quality vegetable crop for human consumption or a forage crop for winter grazing and cover cropping. In this study, we (i) estimated soil pH buffering capacity and microbial activity, (ii) quantified crop productivity influenced by different biochar amendment rates and N fertilizer management practices based on a factorial treatment design. Particularly, biochar was amended at rates of 0, 5, 20, and 40 Mg/ha; N fertilizer was applied at zero (N0), 122 kg/ha of urea (56 kg/ha of N; N1) and 4.8 Mg/ha of aged dairy cattle manure (56-60 kg/ha of N), providing a total of 12 treatments (four biochar rates × three fertilization practices). The combination of biochar and inorganic N fertilizer such as urea appeared to have positive impacts on the short-term biomass production, soil pH buffering capacity, and enhanced soil microbial activity for short-season forage radish production (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). Future research is warranted to evaluate the use of biochar in field-based forage/vegetable studies in Tennessee.</p> Todd Pirtle Lee Rumble Michael Klug Forbes Walker Song Cui Nathan Phillips Copyright (c) 2019 JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 10 1594 1610 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8035 Asexual Propagation of Four Medicinal Greek Endemic Plants of Lamiaceae Family With Conservation Priority From The Collection of The Balkan Botanic Garden of Kroussia, N. Greece http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8039 <p>Conservation of endemic rare-threatened plants and sustainable exploitation of biodiversity with emphasis on medicinal-aromatic plants and plants with horticultural/ornamental value can be achieved through ex situ conservation activities. For this purpose, propagation experiments with cuttings were performed on four local Ionian endemic species with conservation priority, <em>Stachys ionica </em>Halácsy, <em>Teucrium halascyanum</em>, <em>Thymus holosericeus C</em>elak and <em>Thymus plasonii </em>Adamovic (all Lamiaceae). For propagation, softwood tip cuttings (3-5 cm) were cut at early autumn from mother plants collected from the wild and maintained in open-air mother plantations. For experimentation, the base of cuttings was immersed for 1 min in solutions of four concentrations of IBA (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm). Cuttings were placed on a peat:perlite (1:3) substrate in the bench of greenhouse heated mist system. Most suitable treatment for <em>T. halascyanum</em> (3 ½ weeks) proved to be 1000 ppm IBA (32.13 roots 1.72 cm long, 100% rooting). Accordingly, 2000 ppm IBA gave 100% rooting for both <em>S. ionica</em> (28.5 roots 1.56 cm long,) (3 weeks) and <em>Th. holosericeus</em> (4.4 roots 1.76 cm long) (7 weeks). <em>T. plasonii</em> cuttings treated with 2000 ppm IBA gave 85.71% optimum rooting with 8.67 roots 1.78 cm long.</p> Virginia Sarropoulou Eleni Maloupa Copyright (c) 2019 JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 10 1611 1622 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8039 Increasing Eggs Protein Level and Eggshell Integrality Performed by Addition of Xylanase, Amylase, Protease (Avizyme® 1502) in Layers Feed http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8061 <p>The high number of broken eggshells on laying hens in Indonesia is very detrimental to farmers, so that needs to be overcome. A total of 480 Lohman chickens with 40 weeks of age were divided into 4 treatment groups with the addition of different doses of Avizyme® 1502 respectively P0 as a control that got 0 g/Kg of feed, P1 got 1 g/Kg of feed, P2 got 2 g/Kg of feed, P3 got 3 g/Kg of feed. Avizyme® 1502 contains enzymes xylanase, amylase, and protease. This treatment was given daily for 30 days. The sampling of eggshell checking was recorded when start of administering enzymes to the end of the administration and at the end of the study, 6 eggs from each treatment were taken randomly to measure the protein level. The results showed that the addition of 1 g/Kg of Avizyme® 1502 on feed provided the highest protein level in eggs. During the research period, eggs produced by the groups of chicken under treatments of Avizyme 1502® showed a decrease in cracked eggshell.</p> Hamong Suharsono Ida Bagus Putu Semara Putra Ida Bagus Komang Ardana I Wayan Nico Fajar Gunawan Putu Henrywaesa Sudipa Kadek Karang Agustina Copyright (c) 2019 Hamong Suharsono, Ida Bagus Putu Semara Putra, Ida Bagus Komang Ardana, I Wayan Nico Fajar Gunawan, Putu Henrywaesa Sudipa, Kadek Karang Agustina https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 10 1623 1628 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8061 Impatiens ‘New Guinea’ (Impatiens hawkeri Bull) Hormonal Effects during the Post-transplant Biomass Accumulation http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8119 <p>Pot ornamental plant productivity is related to the environmental growth facilities but negatively affected by the pot root restriction syndrome so during nursery as the post-transplant stage. The physiological mechanism involved included both the synthesis and translocation of auxins and cytokinins. However, clear sink-source and dose-response relationships of exogenous plant regulators such as indole acetic acid (AIA) and benzyl amino purine (BAP) and environment on biomass accumulation in most ornamental foliage plants, including New Guinea <em>Impatiens </em>(<em>Impatiens hawkeri</em>) are lacking. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of an exogenously shoot-applied auxin and a cytokinin, separately or successively, on the post-transplant biomass accumulation of <em>I. hawkeri </em>through the anatomical, morphological and physiological changes observed. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment included the response to only BAP-sprayed plants (0, 5, 50, or 100 mg L<sup>-1</sup>). For the second experiment, rooting cuttings of <em>I. hawkeri </em>were sprayed with different concentrations of IAA (0, 5, 50, or 100 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) followed by different BAP concentrations (0, 5, 50, or 100 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) one week later to run-off at sunset. Results showed that (a) a single BAP or AIA dose increased increase post-transplant biomass accumulation through a higher leaf area expansion and photo assimilate production, (b) as a result of both AIA and BAP spray, the higher NAR the higher post-transplant biomass accumulation, (c) leaf anatomical changes (leaf thickness, intercellular spaces) let a higher carbon dioxide diffusion and fixation with a correlative increase in photo assimilates, (d) a higher root system would be related to a higher cytokinin synthesis. In summary, similarities between responses to either hormone, together with the lack of any IAA - BAP interaction, provide two independent routes for commercial growers to increase the productivity of <em>I. hawkeri </em>ornamental plants by using early foliar sprays.</p> Adalberto Di Benedetto Jorge Molinari Pablo Fujinuma Alberto Pagani Marcela Buyatti Ernesto Giardina Copyright (c) 2019 Adalberto Di Benedetto, Pablo Fujinuma, Alberto Pagani, Marcela Buyatti, Ernesto Giardina https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 10 1629 1649 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8119 Jatropha curcas: an overview http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8145 <p><em>Jatropha curcas L</em>. belongs to family <em>Euphorbiaceae</em>, <em>Jatropha curcas</em> is a valuable multi-purpose crop, historically it was used as medicine for wounds and leaves used as drinks against malaria, jatropha plants used to control soil degradation, alleviate erosion, desertification and increase soil fertility, however, in last decades there is more attention to use jatropha oil for produce biodiesel, &nbsp;<em>Jatropha </em><em>curcas </em>is easily propagated by seeds or stem cutting, it is tolerant for drought for longtime, it is grow well with treated wastewater, also, it can be grown on marginal land. <em>Jatropha curcas</em> seed have about 32-40% valuable oil used to produce biofuel, therefore, it could be the source for biodiesel production particularly in arid and semiarid regions.</p> Waleed Abobatta Copyright (c) 2019 waleed abobatta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 10 1650 1656 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8145 Heavy metals concentrations in bee products collected from contaminated and non-contaminated areas from Upper Egypt Governorates http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8149 <p>Twenty fresh clover honey, ten beeswax and ten bee bread samples represented&nbsp;contaminated and non-contaminated areas were collected directly from the apiaries&nbsp;during 2015 .The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of toxic metals ( Lead&nbsp;(Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn)) in honey, beeswax and&nbsp;bee bread stored inside honey bee colonies. The highest lead contents (0.5488 mg/kg)&nbsp;was estimated in honey samples collected from industrialized area The lowest Pb&nbsp;content were estimated in honey samples collected from rural area (0.5096 mg/kg).<br>The lowest Cd concentration (0.0961 mg/kg). However, the highest content of Cd&nbsp;(0.1042 mg/kg) was recorded in honey samples collected from urbanized areas. High&nbsp;concentration of (Cu) was estimated in honey samples collected from apiaries located&nbsp;in industrialized area (0.0757 mg/kg) while the lowest were recorded in rural area&nbsp;(0.0432 mg/kg) . Zn occurred in low concentration in honey samples The highest&nbsp;value was recorded in honey samples from rural area (0.241) mg/kg and the lowest in&nbsp;honey samples from apiaries located in Reclaimed soils (0.185) mg/kg. Heavy metal<br>concentrations of Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu and Zn in beeswax samples collected from&nbsp;contaminated and non-contaminated areas were 1.388, 0.194, 16.696, 0.619 and 4.606&nbsp;mg/kg. While the averages of heavy metal concentrations in non contaminated area&nbsp;decreased to 1.175; 0.160; 15.466; 0.391 and 2.520 mg/kg, respectively.&nbsp;Contamination in bee bread samples showed that lead concentration (1.094 mg/kg to&nbsp;1.338 mg/kg) was detected in bee bread samples collected from honey bee colonies&nbsp;located in non-contaminated areas and samples collected from( industrialized and&nbsp;urban areas).</p> Abd El-Aleem Saad Desoky N. S. Omran M.O. M. Omar M. H. Hussein M. M. Abd-Allah Copyright (c) 2019 Abd El-Aleem Saad Desoky, N. S. Omran, M.O. M. Omar, M. H. Hussein, M. M. Abd-Allah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 10 1657 1666 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8149 Rodent Control Strategies in Hospitals http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8158 <p>An infestation of rodents in a healthcare facility is especially dangerous because these&nbsp;pests can carry disease and spoil food with the&nbsp;bacteria&nbsp;and&nbsp;viruses&nbsp;they harbor in&nbsp;their saliva and droppings. Exposure to dangerous pathogens could be disastrous for&nbsp;already health-compromised patients.&nbsp;The aim of the study is to implement an integrated control program for rodents inside&nbsp;hospitals and to clarify the most important preventive methods that can be used in the&nbsp;control process and to make some important observations in the application of&nbsp;methods of integrated control of rodents to obtain the best program for rodent control&nbsp;in hospitals.</p> Abd El-Aleem Saad Desoky Copyright (c) 2019 Abd El-Aleem Saad Desoky https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 10 1667 1668 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8158 Micropropagation and Conservation of Fig (Ficus Carica L.) http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8160 <p>An efficient protocol is outlined for rapid and mass micropropagation of <em>Ficus carica</em> L. (fig). Shoot tips (5 mm) were obtained from mother plants stock grown on half strength Murashige and Skoog (½ MS) medium with the addition of 30 g/L sucrose. For shoot multiplication Benzyl amino purine (BAP) and kinetin produced differences number of new shoot per plant and shoot height. BAP at 0.4 mg/L in combination with 0.2 mg/L indole-3-butyric-acid (IBA) produce maximum <em>in vitro </em>propagation rate, with 4.2 shoots per ex-plant. Root initiation was experimented on MS medium containing different concentrations of mg/L, IBA, IAA (Indole-3-acetic-acid) (IAA) or Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Highest number of root (4.3) was resulted when 1.5 mg/L IBA was used. After acclimatization in a mixture of (1 soil: 1 perlite: 1 peat) survival rate of 80% was achieved. For <em>in vitro</em> conservation of <em>F. carica</em> was experimented as microshoots were stored for 40 weeks on MS medium containing different sucrose concentration. Medium supplemented with 3% sucrose gave the highest regrowth (89%) at 24 ± 2 °C. Culture grew slowly when transferred to new fresh medium after the storage periods.</p> Mohamad Shatnawi Rida A. Shibli Wesam G. Shahrour Tamara S. Al-Qudah Abu-Zahra Taleb Copyright (c) 2019 Mohamad Shatnawi, Rida A. Shibli, Wesam G. Shahrour, Tamara S. Al-Qudah, Abu-Zahra Taleb https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 10 1669 1679 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8160 Soil Physical Properties Enhancement Via Native Tree Species in Northern Ethiopia http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8203 <p>Dozens of chemical fertilizer is produced in factors to maintain and reclaim soil fertility, but the reliance on artificial fertilizer alone is not advisable due to environmental pollution. . Thus, indigenous plant species can maintain soil fertility without any extra cost. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of indigenous tree species on soil physical properties. Three dominant indigenous trees species (Croton macrostachuys, Cordia Africana and Albizia gummifera) were considered.&nbsp; Soil samples were taken from different sampling points under crown of these tree species (mid of crown and edge of crown). One sampling point is included by far 30m from the selected tree as a control group. Soil sample was taken by using core sampler. Soil physical properties such as texture, structure, porosity, bulk density and moisture content were analyzed. Bulk density was determined as 0.73g/cm<sup>3</sup>, 0.75g/cm<sup>3</sup> and 0.8g/cm<sup>3</sup> for Albizzia gummifera, Croton macrostachuys and Cordia Africana respectively. Bulk density was very small under crown of all trees as influenced by the amount of organic matter falling from trees leaf. The texture under crown of all tree species (silty loam, loam and loamy sand) is quite better for agriculture purpose than control point. Soil color under crown is in the range of brown to black color, which indicates high fertility level. Soil porosity was very high under the crown of all tree species as compared to the control site. It is determined as 72.5%, 71.6%, and 69.7% for Albizzia gummifera, Croton macrostachuys and Cordia Africana respectively. Soil consistence, porosity and moisture content were better under crown of the trees than control group. Soil properties under the crown of indigenous tree species were better than bare land soils.&nbsp; Therefore, indigenous trees are promising option to maintain soil fertility level and land owners ought to be aware of this miracle.</p> Kassaye Gurebiyaw Legese Abay Gelanew Melese Alemu Copyright (c) 2019 Kassaye Gurebiyaw Legese, Abay Gelanew, Melese Alemu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 10 1680 1691 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8203 Effect of Micronutrients on The Two Qatari Date Palm Cultivars Shishi and Lulu Through in Vitro Technic http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8252 <p>Plant tissue responds to nutrient media due to the plant cultivars genetic diversity. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of micronutrients on date palm growth and which of these micronutrients are critical for improving growth combined with Paclobutrazol or without on <em>in vitro</em> of elongation stage. <em>In vitro</em> growth of two cultivars were determined by varying five treatments that included minor salts (EDTA-chelated iron, CuSo<sub>4,</sub>) alone or combined with Paclobutrazol. The effects of these five treatments on plantlet length, trunk thickness, rooting number and Chlorophyll A, B was investigated. The results obtained after three months showed that, increasing copper sulphate on MS elongation media combined with Paclobutrazol was more effective for increasing the trunk thickness as well as rooting number compared with normal MS level. While poor response was found when Fe was increased in the chelated form of Fe-EDTA on MS elongation media.&nbsp; For cultivars, Shishi gave the highest plantlets length as well as root number. The maximum content of chlorophylls A and B were observed when copper sulphate was increased on MS elongation media with cultivar Lulu. The survival rate after 3 months was related to the medium used during the elongation phase, the survival of plantlets reached to 98.66% with cultivar lulu at the acclimatization stage.</p> Sara Aqeel Rehab A. Sidky Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 10 1692 1704 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8252 Inoculation of Potato Pulp with Antibacterial Lactic Acid Bacterium To Improve The Quality of Livestock Feed http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8199 <p>Potato pulp was inoculated either with the antibacterial lactic acid bacteria <em>Lactococcus lactis</em> and <em>L</em><em>.</em> <em>diolivorans</em> and the inoculated potato pulp was ensiled under anaerobic conditions for 30 d at room temperature in a mini-silo. We have previously reported that <em>L</em>. <em>diolivorans</em> produces antimicrobial peptides with potent antibacterial activity; therefore, the bacterium is expected to increase the fermentation quality of the potato pulp. The quality of the potato pulp silage was evaluated. The moisture content of the potato pulp silage was remained 822 g/kg before and after ensiling. The protein content in the silage increased from an initial concentration of 39 to 57 g/kg and 58 g/kg for <em>L. lactis</em> and <em>L</em><em>. </em><em>diolivorans</em> inoculations, respectively. The lactic acid content significantly increased from 2 to 52 g/kg (<em>L. lactis</em>) and 50 g/kg (<em>L. </em><em>diolivorans</em>) after ensiling, whereas, toxic butyric acid was not detected with either treatment. These results suggest that the inoculation of potato pulp with <em>L. lactis</em> or <em>L. </em><em>diolivorans</em> increases the quality and nutrition of potato pulp as silage. In particular,<em> L</em>. <em>diolivorans</em> is an efficient inoculant because it produces antibacterial peptides that prevent the increase of saprophyte in silage.</p> Ayiguli Dagaerbieke Oyundelger Ganzorig Kensuke Miyazaki Takashi Yoshida Copyright (c) 2019 Ayiguli Dagaerbieke, Oyundelger Ganzorig, Kensuke Miyazaki, Takashi Yoshida https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-05 2019-04-05 10 1705 1712 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8199 Study on Mechanical Law of Vibration Abscission of Camellia Oleifera Fruit Based on High-Speed Camera Technology http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8265 <p>The movement and mechanical characteristics of oil-tea camellia fruit coupling with flower simultaneously during the harvest period were studied to provide an indispensable theoretical guideline for the mechanized picking machine. The mechanical properties of Camellia oleifera were obtained by investigating its flowers and fruits, and the vibration harvesting of Camellia oleifera was studied by using dynamic vibration device. The i-Speed3 high-speed camera was used to record the harvesting process, and the image analysis and calculation were carried out by its own Control-Pro software. The results showed that different varieties of Camellia oleifera had different flowering periods, ranging from 30 to 55 days; their weight also varied among varieties; there was no inevitable relationship between the binding force (pulling force and torque) of fruit stalks and their varieties, locations and diameter of fruit stalks. More importantly, during the vibration process, the fruit peeling speed is related to the vibration source clamping position and vibration parameters. Under the condition of short clamping distance and high frequency and low amplitude, the fruit is more likely to fall off.</p> Yang Cheng Wang Qi Copyright (c) 2019 Yang Cheng, Wang Qi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 10 1713 1725 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8265 Field Trials Indicating the Potential of Abutilon Theophrasti (Medic.) As A New Fibre Crop in Southwest Germany http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8261 <p>Natural fibre based composites are being used more frequently in the automotive industry because of their positive characteristics. Fibres currently used and mostly imported to Europe do not sufficiently meet all the demands for natural fibres. As a new fibre plant velvetleaf (<em>Abutilon theophrasti)</em> has been taken into consideration. However, there is no knowledge about the cultivation of velvetleaf in Europe.</p> <p>Four field trials in southwest Germany were set up to investigate the potential of fibre yield in a temperate climate. The factors crop density, nitrogen fertilization, accessions, and different harvesting dates were tested.</p> <p>Across all experiments fibre yield ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> dry matter. The highest yields were achieved with a crop density of 30 plants m<sup>-2</sup>, and with N fertilization of 100-150 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> for the accession ‘Herbiseed’. For highest fibre yield, the date of harvest should be at the beginning of maturity.</p> <p>This study provides first insights into possibility and variation of cultivating velvetleaf and suggests adequate fibre yield when cultivated in proper plant density and appropriate accession. However, before the plant can be implemented as a new crop, more research on fibre quality and breeding activity to improve agronomic factors is required.</p> Maria Scheliga Urs Brand Oliver Türk Sabine Gruber Jan Petersen Copyright (c) 2019 Maria Scheliga, Urs Brand, Oliver Türk, Sabine Gruber, Jan Petersen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-04 2019-05-04 10 1726 1739 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8261 Performance Evaluation of Red Pepper Varieties and Types of Seed Bed for The Management of Root Rot (Phytophtora Capsici) Disease at Central Gondar, Northwest, Ethiopia. http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8258 <p>Root rot caused by Phytophtora capsici is one of the most important root diseases of pepper. The experiment was conducted at Denbiya and Takusa district with aimed to evaluate effective red pepper varieties and types of seed bed against root rot disease. Five red pepper varieties namely Melka Dera, Melka Oli, Melka Zala, Marco Fana, local; and two seed bed types namely flat and raised bed were used as treatments. Treatments were arranged in a factorial combination in RCBD with three replication.&nbsp; Result showed that the minimum incidence and severity of 28.13 % and 19.8%, respectively was recorded from Melka Oli variety transplanted in a raised bed while the maximum incidence and a severity of 51.03% and 42.8%, respectively were recorded from local red pepper in flat seed bed. The maximum grain yield of 28.81 q/ha and insignificance yield losses were recorded from Melka Oli in raised beds while the minimum grain yield and maximum yield losses 11.12q/ha and 61.44%, respectively were recorded from local red pepper in flat seed bed. Therefore, results suggested that the use of Melka Oli variety transplanted at raised seed bed is promising for significant reduction in root rot incidence and a corresponding increase in yield of red pepper.</p> Yigerm Mengist Abebe Birara Copyright (c) 2019 Yigerm Mengist, Abebe Birara https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-04 2019-05-04 10 1740 1751 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8258 The Stimulating Effects of Imazalil and Carbendazim Fungicides on in Vitro Propagation and ex Situ conservation of the Medicinal Balkan Range-Restricted Sideritis Raeseri Boiss & Heldr. Subsp. Raeseri http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8282 <p><em>Sideritis raeseri </em>Boiss &amp; Heldr. subsp. <em>raeseri</em>, known in Greece as Mountain tea of Parnassus or Velouchi is a range restricted medicinal plant of the Balkan peninsula. Conventional propagation methods did not allow the mass production of plant material in a short period of time due to both low seed germination rate and rooting of cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a reliable, reproducible and efficient regeneration protocol for mass and large-scale micropropagation, germplasm and <em>ex situ </em>conservation<em> of S. raeseri</em> Boiss &amp; Heldr. using Imazalil and Carbendazim fungicides. After 9 weeks, 2.5-10 mg/l Imazalil stimulated root length by 1 cm but diminished root number and rooting percentage. Optimum shoot number (5.58), shoot length (24.91 mm), shoot multiplication (100%), root number (20.63) and rooting (66.67%) were recorded with 0.5 mg/l kinetin (KN) + 0.05 mg/l ?-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (Imazalil-free). After 4 ½ weeks, 1 mg/l Carbendazim + 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) yielded 5.77 shoots/explant, 16.1 mm shoot length and 100% shoot multiplication. However, Carbendazim did not result in rooting. The <em>ex vitro </em>survival percentage of rooted shoot-tip explants derived from Imazalil experiment was 95%. Carbendazim proved useful in shoot proliferarion and Imazalil in root elongation of <em>S. raeseri</em> Boiss &amp; Heldr. subsp. <em>raeseri</em> micropropagation system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Virginia Sarropoulou Eleni Maloupa Copyright (c) 2019 Virginia Sarropoulou, Eleni Maloupa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-30 2019-05-30 10 1752 1763 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8282 Distribution, Impacts and Management Option for Water Hyacinth (Eichhnornia Crassipes [Mart.] Solms) in Ethiopia: A Review http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8308 <p>Water hyacinth (<em>Eichhprnia crassipes</em>) is the most dangerous and worst invasive aquatic weed in the worldwide including Ethiopia, and negatively affecting millions of water resources, fisheries, transportation and social structure. Water hyacinth was introduced in the water bodies of the Rift Valley in 68years ago and currently, the weed is distributed Lake Tana, Lake Abaya, Lake Koka, Koka Dam. The wide distribution and abundance of water hyacinth has led to decreased water availability and sustainable water biodiversity in Ethiopian lakes. However, the spread of water hyacinth is threatening not only water biodiversity but also socioeconomic development and human wellbeing. Water hyacinth in water bodies and nearby areas the local stakeholder has its negative impact on environmental problem and it’s influenced aquatics biodiversity. This review paper aimed to investigate the distribution, impacts and its integrated management option against water hyacinth in Ethiopia. Therefore, based on the review it can be concluded that human intervention is considered as the current problem of water resource in the country and further study is needed to sustain the water resource are needed to keep water hyacinth at unproblematic levels.</p> Yigerm Mengist Yohannes Moges Copyright (c) 2019 Yigerm Mengist, Yohannes Moges https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 10 1764 1771 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8308 Application of Pyrazole Derivatives As New Substitutes of Auxin IAA To Regulate Morphometric and Biochemical Parameters of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Seedlings http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8341 <p>The regulating activity of new synthetic low molecular weight heterocyclic compounds, pyrazole derivatives on morphometric, and biochemical parameters of wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) seedlings was studied. The synthetic compounds used at the concentration 10<sup>-8</sup>M revealed auxin-like stimulating effect on morphometric parameters of 6<sup>th</sup>-week-old wheat seedlings, which were increased on average: to 31 - 54 % – for total number of roots, to 39 – 104 % – for full length of sources, to 53 - 66 % – for length of the longest root as compared with similar parameters of the wheat seedlings grown in the distilled water (control) or water solution of auxin IAA (1<em>H</em>-Indol-3-ylacetic acid). The synthetic compounds used at the concentration 10<sup>-8</sup>M revealed cytokinin-like stimulating effect on biochemical parameters of 6<sup>th</sup>-week-old wheat seedlings. The content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of the wheat seedlings grown in the water solution of the pyrazole derivatives used at the concentration 10<sup>-8</sup>M increased on average: to 15-34 % – for content of chlorophyll a, to 10-61 % – for content of chlorophyll b, to 16–34 % – for content of chlorophylls a+b, to 14–28 % – for content of carotenoids, as compared with similar indices of the wheat seedlings grown in the distilled water (control) or water solution of auxin IAA. The practical application of pyrazole derivatives to regulate morphometric and biochemical parameters of wheat seedlings was proposed.</p> Victoria Anatolyivna Tsygankova Andrusevich Ya.V Shtompel O.I Kopich V.M Panchyshyn S.Ya Vydzhak R.M Brovarets V.S Copyright (c) 2019 Victoria Anatolyivna Tsygankova, Andrusevich Ya.V, Shtompel O.I, Kopich V.M, Panchyshyn S.Ya, Vydzhak R.M, Brovarets V.S https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-03 2019-07-03 10 1772 1786 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8341 Potential Influence of Climate on Ugandan Aquaculture http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8392 <p>Climate defines the viability of an area for aquaculture at the macro-scale (extensive) level as it dictates water temperature and water quantity in a location that in turn affects fish productivity. Temperature and rainfall data from 1980 to 2016 were analyzed and compared among the different regions of Uganda (Central, Eastern, Northern, and Western) using the Seasonal Mann Kendall Times Series and the 12-month Standard Precipitation Index (SPI). These data were used in the computation of monthly water requirements of the different regions. A positive upward temperature trend for all regions except the Eastern region (p = 0.4222, tau b = 0.027) showed increase of aquaculture production the future. The 12-month SPI showed all regions having near normal SPI (-0.99 to 0.99) but with the Central region having highest SPI and the western region with the lowest SPI. The Central region had the lowest monthly water requirement compared to other regions which was attributed to lower temperatures and lower evaporation rates compared to others. Overall, potential climate effects on aquaculture are not a major issue in the country if climate smart strategies are adopted. That is; water harvesting during the rainy seasons for use in drier periods and planning of the fish production cycle so that the period of water deficit coincides with fish harvest or pond preparation.</p> Shamim Naigaga Copyright (c) 2019 Shamim Naigaga https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-08-15 2019-08-15 10 1787 1800 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8392 Temporal Variations of Water Quality Parameters, Phytoplankton, And Invertebrates In Environmental Change Hotspots: A Case of Lake Wamala, Uganda http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8396 <p>Lake Wamala (Uganda) is a small shallow lake (maximum mean depth = 4.5m) that has periodically undergone<br>fluctuations in depth and area because of changes in rainfall, temperature and wind speed. No study, however,<br>has been done to assess how these changes, in addition to catchment degradation, which are likely to intensify in future, have affected aquatic productivity processes. Data on Secchi depth (SD), turbidity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorous (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), soluble reactive silicon (SRSi), ammonia (NH4-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), Chlorophyl a, composition and abundance of algae, and invertebrates were compared between periods 1998-2000 and 2011-2013. Results showed a twofold increase in conductivity and TP, a threefold increase in SRSi, chlorophyll a &gt; 25 ?g l-1, and persistence by low water transparency (SD &lt; 0.7 m). In consequence, algal biomass increased by &gt;70%, with emergence of new species, especially among the dinoflagellate and euglenophyte groups. Although rotifers, which are known to have capacity to withstand stressful habitat conditions, dominated the zooplankton, their density decreased by &gt;80%. The phantom-midge, chaoborus, and the midge, chironomid, larvae dominated macro-invertebrate, but did not show clear trends between the two periods.</p> Shamim Naigaga Copyright (c) 2019 Shamim Naigaga https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-08-16 2019-08-16 10 1800 1820 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8396 Virulence and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Escherichia Coli Isolated from Diseased Chickens in China and Algeria http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8425 <p>To reveal and compare the prevalence of pathotypes and virulence genes, as well as antimicrobial resistance and genotyping of poultry<em> E. coli</em> isolates from China and Algeria. Pathotype and seven virulence genes were tested by PCR, susceptibility to antimicrobials was evaluated using broth microdilution method, and genotyping was analyzed by PFGE. Six isolates were identified as pathogenic <em>E. coli</em>. Virulence gene testing showed that the frequency of<em> ompT, iss, fimC, iroN, hlyF</em> and<em> iutA</em> was high in the isolates from Shandong, Shanxi, Jiangsu and Xinjiang province, while<em> stx2</em> was detected in only two isolates from Shandong, and <em>stx2, iss, fimC, hlyF </em>and <em>iutA</em> could not be detected in Tibet isolates. Importantly, nearly all isolates from Algeria carried seven virulence genes. Drug resistance testing of 141 strains showed that 98.2% (109/111) of the isolates from China and all isolates (30/30) from Algeria resist to more than three classes of antimicrobials. The PFGE genotyping of 157 isolates yielded 134 types, demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity among these isolates. Thus, the poultry<em> E. coli</em> from both China and Algeria exhibited either high frequencies of antimicrobial resistance or high rates of virulence genes carrying.</p> Junwei Wang Ge Zhao Yubin Gao Hefei Xu Lounis Mohamed Jianmei Zhao Wenyan Gai Ming Zou Zhigang Cui Shigan Yan Juan Wang Zhina Qu Copyright (c) 2019 Junwei Wang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 10 1821 1833 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8425 Effect of Surfactant Compound Sprays on The Rate of Adsorption on Different Target Surfaces http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8442 <p>The first operation of adsorption on leaf surfaces in pulverization is drop sticking. In the water wettability of the surfaces, the sticking of the drops has a great importance. Drop contact angle, contact height, and contact diameter values in the third and tenth seconds were measured with Drop Shape Analysis 10 device to determine adsorption, spreading, and sticking levels by applying mixtures of ten surface active substances including different contents with pure water to different leaf surfaces. The adsorption and sticking rates of the drops they formed on different leaf surfaces were determined for the time they are obtained from the data obtained in both time periods. Furthermore, the spreading rates of the mixtures prepared by taking into account the change rates during the last seven seconds between these two periods were determined as the sticking rate. Coating shares related to covering rates of different surface active substances with different surface properties on the surface of leaves were evaluated as possible work success according to the adsorption, spreading and sticking levels anticipated in spraying. According to their results on the application surfaces, surface active substances and leaves were evaluated statistically by the SPSS 15 program in terms of their similar properties. It has been found that surface active substance mixtures with sodium carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose contents had the largest drop contact angles and contact heights with the smallest drop contact diameters on the leaf surfaces, and a negative impact on the adsorption performance as they spread very little over seven seconds. It has been determined that drops with surface active substance including trisiloxane + allyloxypolyethyleneglycol and alcoholethoxylate, alkylphenolethoxylate have formed the smallest contact angles, minimum drop heights and largest contact diameters on the surface of the leaves, as well as increased adsorption and sticking by spreading rapidly for seven seconds.</p> Muhammed Cemal Toraman Ali Bayat Copyright (c) 2019 Muhammed Cemal Toraman, Ali Bayat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-09-27 2019-09-27 10 1834 1845 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8442 Perception of Ethiopian Mango Farmers on the Pest Status and Current Management Practices for the Control of the White Mango Scale, Aulacaspis Tubercularis (Homoptera: Diaspididae) http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8431 <p>White Mango Scale (WMS), Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), was occurred in Ethiopia in 2010. It was introduced from Asia (India) through infected mango seedlings. Currently the insect problems increase to different parts of Ethiopia. This survey was initiated with the objectives of gathering perception of mango growing farmers on mango WMS insect status and its management methods. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to mango growing farmers selected at random with majority being members of the banana and mango producers. Survey result shows that white mango scale insect is present at all the studied area and all the interviewed farmers responded that their mango tree was faced with some sort of insect problem and some farmers started to manage this insect by cultural and chemical methods. From the interviewed mango growers, 57.3% were knowledge on white mango scale insect and they thought it causes high amount of yield loss. Sixty percent of the respondents use one or combination of control methods of the pest. Further systematic study is needed to implement informed management system to control this emerging mango pest.</p> Melesse tora Anjulo Copyright (c) 2019 Melesse tora Anjulo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-10-05 2019-10-05 10 1846 1852 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8431 Adoption Decision and Sustainable Utilization of Soil Conservation Technologies: Empirical Evidence from North West Ethiopia http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8283 <p>Soil is a crucial and precious natural resource that govern numerous ecological processes. However, in Ethiopia particularly in north Gondar zone, soil erosion is a severe problem and a major cause of the decline of agricultural productivity. The adoption and diffusion of soil and water conservation practices (SWC), as a way to tackle this challenge, has become an important issue in the development policy agenda in the zone. Therefore, this study was to identify factors affecting Soil conservation investments in the North Gondar zone. Data was collected through interviewed schedule, filed observation and focus group discussion. The multistage sampling technique was employed to select 206 sample households. &nbsp;Both descriptive and econometrics model was used to analyze the collected data. A multivariate profit (MPV) model was used to analyze the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, market, institutional and biophysical related factors on the interdependent investment decisions of SWC practices using household survey. The MPV model analysis indicates that farmers invest a combination of practices at parcel level by considering substitution and complementarity effects of the practices. The results also revealed that age of household heads, literacy status of household heads, off-farm activity, distance of farmlands from homesteads, tropical livestock unit, and access to training were influence farmers’ investments in SWC practices. The overall results indicate that the identified physical, socioeconomic, and institutional factors influence promote or hinder investments in SWC practice so, policymakers should take into consideration these various factors in designing and implementing SWC policies and Programmers.</p> Kassaye Gurebiyaw Legese Taye Melese Tadie Mire Abebe Birara Kefale Eniyew Copyright (c) 2019 Kassaye Gurebiyaw Legese, Taye Melese, Tadie Mire, Abebe Birara, Kefale Eniyew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 10 1853 1863 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8283 Disinfection of Fruits with Activated Water http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8462 <p>The effect of ionized aqueous solutions (anolytes and catholyte) in the processing of fruits (cherries, morellos, and strawberries) for decontamination has been tested. Freshly prepared analytes and catholyte without the addition of salts were used, as well as stored for 7 months anolytes, prepared with 0.5% NaCl and a combination of 0.5% NaCl and 0.5% Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>. The anolyte prepared with a combination of 0.5% NaCl and 0.5% Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>, as well as the anolyte obtained with 0.5% NaCl, exhibit high antimicrobial activity against the surface microflora of strawberries, cherries, and sour cherries.</p> <p>They inactivate <em>E. coli</em> for 15 minutes. The other species of the fam. <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> were also affected to the maximum extent, as is the total number of microorganisms, especially in cherries and sour cherries. Even stored for 7 months, they largely retain their antimicrobial properties. Anolyte and catholyte, obtained without the addition of salts, showed a lower effect on the total number of microorganisms, but had a significant effect on Gram-negative bacteria, and especially with regard to the sanitary indicative <em>E. coli</em>.</p> Prof. Teodora P. Popova Copyright (c) 2019 Prof. Teodora P. Popova http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 10 1864 1872 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8462 Porous Media in the Simulation of Greenhouse Crops Using the Naïves Bayes EM Algorithm http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8115 <p>The porous media approach has become more popular thus, it solves the equations of motion and energy numerically and therefore obtains detailed distributions of temperature and airspeed. However, those models are not allowed to forecast the relationships between the porosity of the volume of the crop with respect to the variables that comprise the climate in natural ventilation greenhouses at the same time in terms of probability. A porous media model of the crop and its approximations were developed and analyzed through non-supervised Bayesian Networks clustering, with the aim of determining the influence of porous media in function to the density crop, over the climate conditions in a natural ventilation greenhouse. Also, a naïve Bayes model unsupervised by the EM algorithm, initialized with random parameters was developed. The resulting model maximized the likelihood of the training data set. The relationships between the pressure drops in the flow limits at the crop were established. Porosity is directly influenced by humidity, temperature and slowly to CO2 concentration. Solar radiation, speed air and slowly the height are inversely influenced with the porosity. Naïve Bayes EM application to a CFD model has been providing a greater understanding of the interactions between the variables.</p> Guillermo Alfonso De la Torre Gea Copyright (c) 2019 Guillermo Alfonso De la Torre Gea http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 10 1873 1885 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8115 Examination of Effect of Electrochemically Activated Water Solutions on Candida albicans After Different Periods of Storage http://rajpub.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/8473 <p>Studies to determine the sensitivity of <em>Candida albicans</em> to anolyte and catholyte of 0.5% NaCl and a combination of 0.5% NaCl and 0.5% Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> were performed. Both anolytes killed the tested strains in suspensions (10<sup>6</sup> cells/ml) within 5 min. The catholytes showed low antimicrobial activity. The inhibitory properties of the tested anolytes were fully preserved over a period of 2 months when stored in the dark at room temperature, but of the catholytes - for no more than 2 weeks. These results show that anolytes are promising antimicrobial agents with very high activity against <em>C. albicans</em>.</p> Prof. Teodora P. Popova Copyright (c) 2019 Prof. Teodora P. Popova http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 10 1886 1894 10.24297/jaa.v10i0.8473